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Contribution Made By Ancient Indian To Science And Technology You Never Knew !

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By Author: Rajat Bharti
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Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology : All of us know that the Indian subcontinent has a fair share in enriching world’s material culture. Be it making of dyes, the extraction of sugar, the concept of zero, concepts of atom, the game of chess, martial arts etc.

This indicates that India carries a rich legacy of scientific ideas. There are several evidences to prove this. So let us unfold the various areas in which we find scientists’ contribution.
Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology
MATHEMATICS

A number of treatise on mathematics were authorized by Indian mathematicians between 1000 BC and 1000 AD. Technique of algebra and concept of zero is originated in India only.

Harappa Town planning indicates that people in those times had a good knowledge of geometry and measurement.

The earliest book on mathematics was Sulvasutra written by Baudhayana in the 6th century. Concepts of Pythagoras Theorem was mentioned in the Sulvasutra.

Apastamba introduced concepts of practical geometry which involved acute angles, obtuse angles and right ...
... angles.
Aryabhatta
Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology - Aryabhatta
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Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology : Aryabhatta in 499 AD wrote Aryabhattiya in which concepts astronomy was explicitly mentioned.

Astronomy was also called khagol shastra in those days. Aryabhatta in his book mentioned that the earth is round and it rotates on its own axis.

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Brahmagupta
Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology - Brahmagupta
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Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology :Brahmagupta in his book Brahmasputa Siddhantika mentioned zero for the first time as a number. He also introduced negative numbers in his book
Maharviracharya
Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology - Maharviracharya
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He wrote Ganit Sara Sangraha in which he described about the method of finding Lowest common multiple.
Bhaskarcharya
Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology - Bhaskarcharya
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Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology : Being among one of the leading mathematicians in 12tg century AD, Bhaskarcharya in his book Siddhanta Shiromani described about Arithmetic, Algebra, Spheres and mathematics of planets.

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MEDICINE

During Vedic times, Ashwini Kumara was the renowned practitioners of medicine. Dhanvantari was the God of medicine.

Takshila and Varanasi emerged as the centers for medicinal learning.

Two important treaties during that time were

Charak Samhita (deals with Ayurveda)
Sushruta Samhita (deals with Surgery)

Physics

From the Vedic times, Earth materials have been classified into Panchatantra which were identified with Human sense of perception.

Earth with smell
Fire with vision
Air with feeling
Water with taste
Ether with sound

Chemistry

Chemistry in India evolved in phases through experimentations. Areas of application of chemistry were

Metallurgy
Distillation of perfumes
Making of dyes
Extraction of Sugar
Production of gunpowder
Production of paper

Nagarjuna
Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology - Nagarjuna
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Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology : One of the famous chemist of ancient times was Nagarjuna. Nagarjuna was known as having blessed with the power of changing base metals into gold. He wrote a book on chemistry named Rasaratnakara. The book tells about survey on metallurgy.

Nagarjuna also wrote Uttaratantra which dealt with the preparation of medical drugs.

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Varahmihira
Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology - Varahamihira
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The contribution of Varahmihira in the field of geology, hydrology and ecology cannot be forgotten. Varahmihira lived in the Gupta Period and was among the nine gems in the court of Vikramaditya.

Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology : Varahmihira propounded the earth cloud theory in his book Brihat Samhita. In his book he related earthquakes to the influence if plants, behaviors’ of animals, underground water, activities beneath the sea and cloud formation. Varahmihira also made his contribution in Astrology.
SHIP BUILDING AND NAVIGATION

Contribution Made by Ancient Indian to Science and Technology : Sanskrit and Pala Literature mentioned of ship building and navigation activities. The infamous Satyanarayana Puja talks of a sea merchant who was caught in a storm and prayed to the lord that he would offer puja to Lord Satyanarayana if he was safe.

A treatise in Sanskrit named Yukti Kalpa Taru deals with various techniques used in ship building during ancient times. The book has mentioned the minute details about the types of ships, their sizes and the types of materials used to build those ships.

The ships were classified into two classes:

Samanya (Ordinary Class)
Vishesha (Special Class)

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