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16 Incredible Cement Types With Uses & Properties

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16 Incredible Cement Types With Uses and Properties
1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC): The ingredients are mixed in the proportion of about two parts of calcareous materials to one part of argillaceous materials and then crushes and ground in ball mills. This mixture is burnt at about 1500-degree Celsius and cooled where gypsum is added to it and grounded again to the requisite fineness.


Properties of OPC Cement:

Fineness – 225 sq. metre/kg
Soundness – 2.5mm
Normal Consistency – 25%
Initial Setting Time – 30 minutes
Final Setting Time – 600 minutes
Specific Gravity – 3.12 Mg/cubic. metre
Bulk Density – 830 to1650 330 kg/cubic. metre
Compressive Strength is 16 N/sq.mm & 22 N/sq.mm for 3 & 7 days respectively
Loss of Ignition

Uses: This type of cement is used for general Construction Purposes where special properties are not required such as reinforced concrete buildings, bridges, pavements and can be used at normal soil conditions. This Cement type mostly used in Concrete Masonry Units.

2. Portland Pozzolana Cement ...
... (PPC): It is manufactured by grinding Portland Cement Clinker and Pozzolana (usually fly ash or burnt clay, shale which has no cementing value). Pozzolana, when combines with lime produce stable lime-pozzolana compound, has cementitious properties.

The hardening of PPC consists in Hydration of Portland Cement Clinker compounds and then in the interaction of the pozzolana with Calcium Hydroxide released during Hardening of clinker.


Note:

With the above effect PPC acquires greater Water Resisting Property than OPC.
Initial Setting Time of OPC is faster than PPC. So, OPC is recommended in projects where properties are to be removed early.

Properties of PPC Cement:

Fineness should not be less than 300 sq. metre/kg
Initial Setting Time – 30 minutes
Final Setting Time – 600 minutes
Drying Shrinkage should not be more than 0.15%
Compressive Strength should be as follows:
72 + or – 1 hour not less than 16 N/sq.mm

168 + or – 2 hour not less than 22 N/sq.mm

672 + or – 4 hour not less than 33 N/sq.mm

Uses: PPC Cement has low heat evolution & used in places of mass concrete such as dams and also in places of high temperature.

3. Portland Slag Cement (IS: 455): PSC is manufactured by a mixture of Portland Cement Clinker and granulated slag with the addition of gypsum.


Properties of PSC Cement:

The Setting times and Compressive strength are the same as that of 33 grade OPC Cement.
Chemical Properties are the same as that of 33 grade OPC Cement
Specific Surface should not be more than 10mm (by Le-Chatelier Method) and 0.8% (by Autoclave Test)
Uses: It can be used in all places where OPC is used. Due to the low heat of Hydration, it can also be used for mass concreting i.e., Dams, Foundations, etc.

4. Rapid Hardening Portland Cement (IS: 8041): RHC is obtained from OPC Clinker by finer grinding (450 sq. metre/kg). For a controlled setting rate, gypsum is added during the manufacturing process.


Note: The Cost of Rapid Hardening Cement (RHC) is about 10% more than the OPC Cement.

Properties of RHC Cement:

Initial Setting Time – 30 minutes
Final Setting Time – 10 Hours
Compressive Strength as follows:
1 day – 16.0 N/sq.mm

3 days – 27.5 N/sq.mm

Uses: It is suitable for repairing roads and bridges and when a load is applied in a short period.

5. High Alumina Cement (IS: 6452): It is obtained by finely grinding the fusion of 40% bauxite, 40% lime, 15% iron oxide with a little ferric oxide & silica, magnesia at a very high temperature where the alumina content should not be less than 32%.


Note: It is not a type of Portland Cement

Properties of High Alumina Cement:

Fineness should not be less than 225 sq. metre/kg
Not Quick Setting
Initial Setting Time – 30 minutes, even up to 2 Hours
Final Setting Time should not be more than 600 minutes
High early strength (Attains strength in 24 Hours)
High Heat of Hydration
Chemical Attack Resistant
Compressive Strength after one day and 3 days are 30 N/sq.mm and 35 N/sq.mm respectively
Cement Expansion should not be more 5mm
Uses: It is resistant to fire, water and sulphates & is used as refractory concrete in Industries. Widely used for precasting and should be used in places where the temperature exceeds 18 degrees Celsius.

6. Supersulphate Portland Cement (IS: 6909): It is manufactured by intergrinding a mixture of granulated blast furnace slag not less than 70%, calcium sulphate & small quantity of 33 grade Portland Cement. In this, Tricalcium Aluminate which is susceptible to sulphates is limited to less than 3.5%.


Properties of Supersulphate Portland Cement:

Fineness – 400 sq. metre/kg
Initial Setting Time should not be less than 30 minutes
Final Setting Time should not be more than 600 minutes
Low Heat of Hydration
Chemical Attack Resistant (In particular to sulphates)
Compressive Strength should be as follows:
72 + or – 1 hour not less than 15 N/sq.mm

168 + or – 2 hour not less than 22 N/sq.mm

672 + or – 4 hour not less than 30 N/sq.mm

Cement Expansion – 5mm
Uses: It is used for a similar purpose as Common Portland Cement. Due to its higher water resisting property, it is preferred in hydraulic engineering installation and also in constructions intended for service in moist media.

7. Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement: It is manufactured by grinding and intimately mixing calcareous and argillaceous and other silica, alumina and iron oxide bearing materials. In this cement, the amount of tricalcium aluminate is restricted to on acceptably low value (

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