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Types Of Parasitism On Host
This usage is on the counter than it does in everyday language, which means staying, not host. The word host is from the Latin hospes (genitive hospitis ), which then represented the same two contradictory meanings: that home and it is hosted. Because of the ambiguity of the term, some people prefer the terms host (Latin hospitator ) 2 host, three four or host .
It is pertinent to mention that there are always host a dependent relationship of a biological system (a living being or a virus ) compared to the other on the living, either continuously or temporarily. This may occur in future interactions of the following types:
? Parasitism . The endoparasites reside permanently, at least in some stages of their development inside the host, guests occupying successive phases of its cycle. Endoparasites usually save an extreme specificity of relationship with their guests, often depending on one or a few related species. The ectoparasites , such as sucking , may or may tend to be less demanding, but not always, eg in the caterpillars of butterflies is very narrow common dependence on the food plant .
? Pathogenesis ...
... . Many viruses, bacteria, fungi and small animals, cause disease, which represents an extreme form of parasitism. The relationship of specific pathogens is usually especially because evolution tends to produce an adaptation of the host to the pathogen, only when an agent finds a new host species the relationship takes the typical form.
? Commensalism . Diners tend to be less selective in choosing guests, both in the case of phoresis (transport smaller agency for the largest) or inquilinismo as in food dependency.
? Mutualism . The fungi mycorrhizal are variously dependent on its host plant. The same is true of the bacteria fix nitrogen and intestinal bacteria that help digestion.
Speaking of parasites, called primary host to that which develops most of its existence and, above all, their growth. It's called secondary host that harbors the parasite only at an early stage of growth, almost always related to their dispersion and to facilitate their entry in the primary host. For example, nematodes of the genus Anisakis , producing anisakiasis in humans, do so because their primary hosts are natural marine mammals like human physiology, while the secondary hosts are, in successive moments of its development initially and small crustaceans then fish, when eaten at the first. Infestation of cetaceans or humans occurs when the fish eat. Another example is the species of Plasmodium which infect humans, protists apicomplexan that cause malaria , in which case the secondary host is a mosquito genus Anopheles , which acts as a vector of the disease.
According to their usefulness for parasite there are several types of hosts or guests:
? Definitive host : means a living being that is essential for the parasite as it developed mainly in the adult stage host.
? Intermediate host : host designates an equally essential in the life cycle of the parasite, where it develops some or all phases larval or juvenile. Sometimes confused with the term " vector "and is considered as an intermediate host to invertebrate involved in the life cycle, often being humans and vertebrate intermediate hosts and the definitive invertebrates.
? Paratenic host : This is the living being that serves as temporary shelter and vehicle access to the definitive host. The parasite does not evolve in this and is therefore not necessary to complete the life cycle, but generally increases the chances of survival and transmission. Also called transport host .
A reservoir host is the home, while primary host to an infectious agent or parasite that may occasionally invade the human body or a species of economic interest. Is a jump from the origin ofzoonoses , diseases from animals, and occasionally emerging infectious diseases , where an agent or parasite acquires the ability to pass directly from one human to another. We know today that the reservoirs from which human epidemics of influenza are early birds, or that the two forms of HIV , which produce AIDS , jumped to the human species from African monkeys.
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