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What Is Retinal Vein Occlusion
What is Retinal Vein Occlusion?
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is an interruption of the normal venous drainage from the retinal tissue. Either the central vein or one of its branches can become occluded. Uncommonly, the occlusion can occur in a vein that drains half of the retina. This is referred to as a hemiretinal vein occlusion (HRVO). RVO is divided into two types, i.e., Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). CRVO is a condition when there is blockage in the main vein of the retina, which is called the central retinal vein, and BRVO occurs when the blockage is in a smaller branch of veins throughout the retina.
Characteristically, in the retina proximal to the occlusion, the affected venous system is tortuous and dilated, and there are several intraretinal hemorrhages and retinal edema. Retinal vein occlusions are usually painless, sudden, and unilateral causes of vision loss.
The condition can occasionally lead to complications and more serious symptoms. Vision may be severely and permanently affected if any of the following complications occur, that includes, macular edema, neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, and retinal detachment. There’s no medication available that’s specific for retinal artery occlusions. Most people with this condition will have permanent changes to their vision. Retinal vein occlusion is a common cause of sudden, painless reduction or loss of vision in older people (it is uncommon in people under the age of 60). It occurs when an artery presses on and blocks one of the veins in the retina (the thin lining at the back of the eye that allows us to see). Retinal vein occlusions can be permanent. Some patients respond well to treatment but may still experience some reduction in vision following treatment.
• As per study by Laouri et al. titled, “The burden of disease of retinal vein occlusion: review of the literature,” the age and sex standardized prevalence was found to be 5.20 (per 1000) for any RVO, 4.42 for BRVO, and 0.80 for CRVO in the population aged ≥30 years.
• The study titled “Prevalence of Retinal Vein Occlusion in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” conducted by Li et al., found the prevalence of RVO in Europe to be 0.7% in persons aged 55 years and older based on the examination of individuals from four prevalence studies.
• As per The European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA) more than 1.1 million people over the age of 55 years are currently affected by a RVO in the EU with 15–25% due to CRVO and 75–80% due to BRVO. This corresponds to a prevalence of RVO in either eye of 0.7%.
• According to the study conducted by Yasuda et al., titled “Prevalence and Systemic Risk Factors for Retinal Vein Occlusion in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study,” the prevalence of RVO was 2.1% (2.0% for branch RVO and 0.2% for central RVO) in japan. After adjustment for age and sex, it was found that systolic and diastolic blood pressures, hypertension, and hematocrit were significantly associated with RVO.
• The study conducted by Ponto et al., titled “Prevalence and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion: the Gutenberg Health Study,” estimated that the prevalence of RVO, CRVO, and BRVO were 0.40%, 0.08%, and 0.32%, respectively. It was found that men were 1.7 times more frequently affected by RVO than women. Prevalence of RVO was 0.2% in participants aged 35–44 and 45–54 years, 0.48% in those aged 55–64 years, and 0.92% in those aged 65–74 years, respectively. Of persons with RVO, 91.5% had one or more cardiovascular risk factor or disease vs. 75.9% of persons without RVO.
• According to the study conducted by Kolar et al., titled “Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data,” RVO is more prevalent in men than women and is more frequent in older age (over 65 years).
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