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Fire Extinguisher Types
Extinguishers commonly available on fire apparatus include dry chemical (A-B-C rated or B-C rated) and pressurized water, but apparatus may also carry water extinguishers with foam or other additive, carbon dioxide extinguishers and/or dry powder (Class D agent). Some departments may have access to “clean-agent” extinguishers, or these may be located in areas such as computer rooms. Other extinguishers mounted in buildings will likely be similar to those carried on apparatus, with some commercial kitchens now equipped with Class K units.
The bottom line: Evaluate the hazards in your coverage area and select the most appropriate types of extinguishers to carry on your apparatus.
There are six basic types of extinguishers.
Many truckies find a pressurized water extinguisher, or “can,” quite useful in controlling fires involving mattresses, closets or even dryers. Truckies open the door to the involved room slightly and dump the contents of the extinguisher in. They then close the door to allow the water to convert to steam and—we hope—to control the fire until the engine company can make the hoseline stretch. Tip: Mounting a strap on the unit allows you to carry it over your shoulder.
Water extinguishers have an effective range of up to 40 feet and discharge for about a minute; however, they are only effective on Class A fires and require some cleanup after use. Tip: On a water extinguisher, firefighters may find it useful to place a finger over the tip to create a “spray” pattern rather than the solid-stream that normally discharges from it.
Water extinguishers with foam or other additives have the benefit of being effective on small flammable liquids fires (Class B). Some departments routinely add foam or a wetting agent to all water extinguishers to provide this advantage, as well as a bit of improved effectiveness on Class A fires. They will require cleanup and can’t be used on electrical fires.
Dry-chemical extinguishers come in many types. Most common are the multi-purpose A-B-C units that can present a corrosive problem if discharged on electrical equipment and not cleaned up quickly. Purple K, a type of dry-chemical agent, is rated only for B-C fires and has been proven to be quite effective on flammable liquid fires, as well as pressurized gas fires, when used in conjunction with AFF foam.
Some departments may carry cartridge-type dry-chemical extinguishers. The agent is in the main extinguisher canister, and a smaller pressurized cylinder is mounted to the side of the unit. A paddle on the top of the cylinder is hit to activate the pressure into the agent canister. Departments with cartridge units must ensure members are familiar with their operation.
Smaller dry-chemical extinguishers may last for only 10 seconds; larger units can last 30 seconds or more. A major disadvantage to dry-chemical extinguishers: They can require extensive cleanup after use, particularly if the agent is exposed to electronic equipment.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Some companies don’t carry CO2 extinguishers because they’re expensive to purchase and recharge. Although CO2 units are only rated for use on Class B and C fires, they require little cleanup and are effective in handling electrical fires without the collateral damage issues presented by dry-chemical units.
CO2 functions by reducing the oxygen in the fire area, so re-flashes can occur if the fire is in a well-ventilated area. The discharge times can be quick—mere seconds—and you must get close to the fire to be effective. Also, the CO2 discharges at low temperatures, requiring that gloves be worn to avoid contact with the extinguisher’s discharge horn. Discharging a CO2 extinguisher may also result in a small static charge that can be surprising if you’re not ready for it.
Clean-agent-type extinguishers are rated for Class B and C fires, and some larger ones are effective on Class A fires as well. A big plus: They require little cleanup. Halon was a widely used clean agent, until it was discovered that it had harmful effects on the Earth’s ozone. There are still halon extinguishers out there, and they can still be used, but a variety of other agents have been developed to replace halon. Clean agents don’t have the same cold issues as CO2, and discharge times vary by the size of the unit.
Many firefighters confuse dry-powder with dry-chemical units, but they are not the same thing. Due to the nature of Class D fires, these extinguishers don’t need to have a considerable range. In some cases, dry-powder agents can be applied by a shovel or similar implement. It’s important to completely cover the material burning for the agent to be fully effective.
Class D fires burn extremely hot, and caution is necessary since burning metal pieces can easily penetrate firefighters’ gloves and gear. Departments should preplan for emergencies at facilities with these hazards.
Class D extinguishers can be expensive, and must be selected with the proper agent based upon the flammable metals anticipated in the department’s coverage area. Many fire departments may never face a Class D hazard, but it’s worth keeping in mind that certain vehicles have magnesium engine blocks and wheels. It’s likely that other flammable metals will only become more common in vehicle construction and power trains.
Wet-chemical extinguishers are specifically designed for kitchen use, or Class K fires. In many cases, they may also carry a Class A rating. At least one manufacturer claims its wet-chemical extinguisher is safe to use on energized electrical equipment, although the extinguisher carries no Class C rating.
Wet-chemical agent is discharged as a fine mist to minimize splashing of oil hazards and reduce the probability that the hazard will rekindle. There will be cleanup with Class K extinguishers, but firefighters can minimize it by applying the agent only to the fire area. Standard discharge time is about 1 minute.
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