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How Does Blockchain Technology Function?

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By Author: SALMA
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How Does Blockchain Technology Function?

A blockchain is a decentralized database that digitally stores information and is shared across a network of computers. One key distinction between a blockchain and a conventional database lies in their data organization. A blockchain, as the name suggests, arranges data into blocks that form an unchangeable ledger.

On the other hand, a traditional database structures data into tables. A blockchain operates as a sequence of interconnected blocks. Each block contains data and is linked to the previous blocks, forming a continuous chain. While various kinds of information can be stored on a blockchain network, transactions are particularly vital.


What is Decentralization in Blockchain and Why is it necessary?

Decentralization in blockchain refers to the absence of a single controlling entity in the system. Instead of having one central authority overseeing the data, a blockchain operates on a network of nodes, where each node holds the entire chain of information. No single node or computer has ultimate control over the data, and every node can verify ...
... the records on the blockchain. This eliminates the need for intermediaries to manage and verify transactions.

This architectural decentralization is essential for blockchain's resilience. Unlike centralized systems that can fail if the controlling entity experiences issues, a decentralized blockchain has no single point of failure. Even though the nodes are technically distributed, they are still logically centralized, following the pre-programmed rules of the blockchain.

How Does a Blockchain Work?

At its core, a blockchain is a digital ledger that records transactions in a secure and transparent manner. It operates through a decentralized network of computers, known as nodes. Here's a simplified breakdown of the process:

Setting up the deal: You start by creating a transaction. Everything you want to send is protected with special keys, like secret codes.

Checking it out: Your transaction is sent to a network of computers all around the world. These computers, called nodes, make sure your deal is okay. They check things like if you have enough money to do the transaction.

Getting into a group: Your transaction isn't the only one being checked. Lots of transactions from different people are checked together. When they're all good, they form a group.

Done and secure: Once the block is in the chain, your transaction is done! And it's super safe because it's in a chain of blocks, and everyone in the network can see it.


Is Blockchain Safe?

Think of a blockchain like a connected chain of blocks. Each block relies on the one before it, except for the first block, called the genesis block. Every block contains data and a unique code from the previous block. This creates a cryptographic link between blocks.

Imagine a chain with 10 blocks. The 10th block relies on the 9th, which relies on the 8th, and so on. If someone tries to change data in the 2nd block, they'd need to alter all later blocks too. Otherwise, the chain breaks. Because each block relies on the previous one, changing blocks becomes harder over time, making the system secure.

Adding or changing a block involves a consensus algorithm, a group decision-making process. Changing one block means recalculating the code for all later blocks. This takes lots of time and computer power.

For an attack to work, a hacker must control and change 51% or more copies of the chain, which is incredibly tough, costly, and time-consuming. So, a blockchain's security is rooted in its interconnected blocks and the massive effort required to tamper with it.


How Does Blockchain App work

With the rise of distributed ledger technology, you've likely come across various decentralized applications, which are essentially blockchain apps. But you might be curious about how these blockchain apps actually function.

So, how do blockchain apps work? In reality, these applications operate based on the same principles as other blockchain platforms.

These apps are designed to eliminate any central points of failure. When compared to centralized systems, blockchain offers enhanced reliability. Moreover, these apps utilize a decentralized database to securely store information and leverage decentralized computing power for their operations.

Furthermore, they employ decentralized consensus mechanisms, as mentioned earlier. Many of these apps opt for efficient consensus methods to ensure agreement among users. A decentralized app that hampers your computer's performance wouldn't gain popularity in the market.

An intriguing aspect of blockchain apps is that their source code is open to all. The decentralized nature of the model mandates universal access to the code. Users also need to validate the type of app they're using to safeguard against malware and protect others' data.

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