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5part Cell Counter: Pros, Cons And Working Principle

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By Author: Everlife CPC diagnostics
Total Articles: 21
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Introduction

A 5-part cell counter counts and classifies blood cells into five groups: RBCs, WBCs, PLTs, and five kinds of WBCs: neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. It also measures HGB, HCT, and other blood parameters. Doctors and nurses use a 5-part cell counter in clinical laboratories for advanced blood tests and diagnosis. It is especially useful for high-volume settings.

Working Principle of a 5-Part Cell Counter

The electrical impedance method and the flow cytometry method work together in a 5-part cell counter. The electrical impedance method sends an electric current through a diluted blood sample in an electrolyte solution. Blood cells cause a change in resistance when they are exposed to electric current. The cell volume is equal to the change in resistance. This lets the 5-part cell countercount the number of RBCs and PLTs.

Flow cytometry is a way to colour and count different kinds of WBCs. It uses special liquids or colours that stick to WBCs based on what they have on their surface or inside. The coloured blood sample goes through a thin tube with a bright ...
... light. The light hits each cell and makes it shine or glow in different ways. Machines can see the light and tell apart the five kinds of WBCs based on how big and complex they are.
The machine can use both methods to measure other things in the blood, such as how much oxygen is in the blood, how much space the blood cells take up, how much haemoglobin is in each RBC, how big the PLTs are, how different the sizes of the RBCs and PLTs are, how many of each kind of WBC is in the blood, how many young RBCs are in the blood, how many new WBCs are in the blood, how many RBCs with a nucleus are in the blood, and other things for research.


Pros of a 5-Part Cell Counter

A 5-part cell counter has several advantages over manual cell counting methods or simpler 3-part cell counters. Some of the pros of a 5-part cell counter are:
Accuracy: A 5-part cell counter can give more detailed and trustworthy information regarding blood cell number, size, shape, and function. It can also detect abnormal cells, which may signal a variety of blood diseases or disorders, including leukaemia, lymphoma, infection, inflammation, or allergies.
Sensitivity: A 5-part cell counter is capable of detecting tiny changes or variances in blood cells that may be medically relevant. It can, for instance, determine the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) or mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of RBCs, which can be used to diagnose anaemia types. It can also assess the reticulocyte count, which is the proportion of immature RBCs in the blood and represents bone marrow function and erythropoiesis.
Specificity: A 5-part cell counter can identify all types of WBCs, including eosinophils and basophils, which are important for diagnosing allergic or parasitic infections. It can also differentiate between immature granulocytes (IG), such as blasts or promyelocytes, and mature granulocytes (GR), such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. This can help diagnose hematological malignancies or monitor treatment effects.
Simplicity: A 5-part cell counter can reduce the need for manual cell counting or microscopy, which are time-consuming and labour-intensive. It can also reduce the need for peripheral blood smear examinations or confirmations, which are subjective and dependent on the skill and experience of the operator.

Cons of a 5-Part Cell Counter

A 5-part cell counter also has some limitations and disadvantages compared to manual cell counting methods or simpler 3-part cell counters. Some of the cons of a 5-part cell counter are:
Cost: A 5-part cell counter is more expensive and complex than a 3-part cell counter. It requires more reagents and consumables, which increases the cost per test and the environmental impact. It also requires more maintenance and calibration, which increases the operational cost and downtime.
Interference: Some things in the blood sample can make the 5-part cell counter give wrong results or warnings. These things can be cold clumps, fat, broken cells, clots, or air bubbles. They can change how the blood cells act in the electric current or the bright light, making the counts or types wrong. These factors may affect the electrical impedance or optical properties of the blood cells, leading to inaccurate counts or classifications.
Overdiagnosis: A 5-part cell counter may detect minor or insignificant changes in blood cells that may not be clinically relevant or require further intervention. For example, it may detect low levels of IG or NRBC that may be normal variants or transient phenomena. This may lead to unnecessary follow-up tests or treatments.

Conclusion

If you are looking for a high-quality 5-part cell counter that can meet your laboratory needs and expectations, you should check out the products from Everlife CPC Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., a leading manufacturer of medical laboratory equipment in India. Everlife CPC Diagnostics offers the Dynacount 5D, a 5-part cell counter that can analyze up to 60 samples per hour. It uses four scattergrams and two histograms to derive 28 parameters plus 8 research parameters. It employs laser scatter flow cytometry to differentiate all types of WBCs with high precision. It also includes a robust system that manages and assures the quality of the data.

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