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By Author: Wisemonkeys
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The operating system (OS) plays a crucial role in managing a computer system. It controls various events and processes, such as scheduling and dispatching tasks for the processor, allocating resources to processes, and responding to requests from user processes for basic services. Essentially, the OS acts as the manager of system resources for processes.

In a multiprogramming environment, multiple processes (P1, P2, ..., Pn) coexist within the computer's virtual memory. Each process requires access to specific system resources, including the processor, input/output (I/O) devices, and main memory, during its execution. In the given scenario, Process P1 is currently running, with at least a portion of it residing in the main memory, and it has control over two I/O devices. On the other hand, Process P2 is also in the main memory but is currently blocked or waiting for an I/O device that has been allocated to Process P1. Process Pn has been swapped out and is therefore temporarily suspended, not residing in the main memory.

Overall, the OS's responsibility is to efficiently manage the utilization of system resources ...
... by processes. It ensures that processes can access the necessary resources, schedules tasks for the processor, and handles requests from user processes. By effectively coordinating these activities, the OS enables smooth and concurrent execution of multiple processes within the computer system.

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