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Systematic Review : Formulating A Research Question - Pubrica
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For a systematic review, formulating a well-constructed research question is mandatory. The first step in executing a Systematic Review is to formulate the research question. Without formulating a well-focused research question, it can be challenging and time-consuming to identify suitable studies and search for relevant evidence. Forming a good research question is not a straightforward process as it requires engaging with the literature.Well-formulated research questions will guide many aspects during the review process, which includes determining eligibility criteria, searchstudies, data collection for included studies, and presenting findings. There are different techniques used for formulating a research question.
Practitioners of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) often use a specialized framework, called PICO, to form the question and facilitate the literature search.A systematic review question typically focused on narrow parameters and usually fitted into the PICO question format.
P – Patient | Population | Problem
Most important characteristics of patients. Examples: Gender, age, and disease or condition
I – Intervention or exposure
Main intervention. Examples: Drug treatment, diagnostic and screening test
C – Comparison or control
Main alternative. Examples: Standard therapy, placebo, no treatment and gold standard
O – Outcome measures
What you are trying to accomplish, improve, measure, affect. Examples: Reduced mortality or morbidity, and improved memory
For quantitative systematic review question formation, PICO can be used along with the variant such as PICOS (S-Study design), PICOC (C-Context), and PICOT (T-timeframe).
For qualitative and mixed research studies, SPIDER can be used as an alternative to PICO
A qualitative research study is not easy to generalize as the sample is preferred over a patient
PI – Phenomenon of Interest
Rather than interventions, it looks at the reasons for behaviour and decisions
D – Design
The type of research through interview or survey
E – Evaluation
R – Research type
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods
For qualitative evidence, SPICE can be used
S – Setting (Where?)
Based on the location or environment relevant to the research
P – Perspective or Population (for Whom?)
The type of people that are being studied
I – Intervention (What?)
The intervention, practice or treatment that are used for evaluation
C – Comparison (compared with what?)
An intervention with which the author compares the above comparator
E – Evaluation (with what result?)
The hypothetical result that isintended to evaluate
For health policy and management information, ECLIPSE can be used
E – Expectation
Improvement,Information or Innovation
C – Client group
At whom the service is aimed
L – Location
where is the service located?
I – Impact
P – Professionals
who is involved in providing or improving the service?
Se – Service
For which service are you looking for information
Once you have a defined research question, it is essential to make sure your research is original, and it is not already addressed. It can be identified through a thorough search in the systematic review databases (such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO,The Campbell Library, and Systematic Review Data Repository (SRDR)) and be sure to check with published reviews as well as registered protocols.
In summary, a well-designed research question is a starting point in conducting a high-qualitysystematic review, as it will determine the nature and scope of the systematic review, andthere are several frameworks available for formulating a research questing and search for a new finding. Once the research question formulation is done, it is very much necessary to check with the database to avoid repetition.
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