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For the processing of thermoplastics the predried granulate is melted in the plasticizing unit of an injection molding machine and then conveyed by the screw to the molding via a spreader system.
This spreader system is also called a gating system. The primary requirement for the gating system is extremely careful transport of the melt to the molding. On the basis of
* the geometry of the molding,
* processing-related reasons and
* economic aspects
the gating system can be divided into the following areas:
* hot runner,
* cold runner,
* sprue and
* Optimal component quality
* no sequential faults
* gentle processing of the plastic melt taking into account process and component requirements Gating system of a center console
Structure of a gating system
A number of demands are placed on a gating system both by the processor and by the raw material supplier. To meet the constant cost pressure, processors attach importance to smooth and optimally automated production. Furthermore, they require a large processing window, but for reasons of economic efficiency wish to realize a short cycle and be faced with little sprue waste. From a rheological point of view, however, low shear, temperature increase and pressure loss are optimal conditions for trouble-free production. To meet these, in part, conflicting requirements, the gating system is divided into different sections.
* In the hot runner the melt is maintained at the proper temperature by means of electric heating. In this way even larger distances can be bridged over in the mold without pressure losses. The hot runner ends in a hot nozzle, which represents the boundary line between the heated and unheated zone.
* The cold runner is the link between the hot runner and sprue section and bridges the section that can no longer be reached with the hot runner. A large temperature gradient is produced between the cold mold wall and the melt in the unheated cold runner. Therefore, the melt in the cold runner is exposed to greater shear and accordingly is subjected to a greater load. Short cold runners make it possible to keep pressure loss and material load within acceptable limits.
* The sprue is the transition area between cold runner and molding. Varying sprue designs are used here, depending on the design and demands on the part.
* The gate point is the transition point from the sprue to the molding. Often rheological necessities and demands on surface quality clash at this point. Two aspects must be kept in mind:
1) A small gate is less visible and can be removed from the mold better.
2) In a gate whose size is too small the melt is exposed to an extremely high shear that may lead to surface problems, such as streaking and collapse.
Design of a gating system
The gating system guides the melt prepared in the injection molding cylinder to the molding and has direct and indirect effects on the quality of the molding. Against this background, the article designer and the tool and die maker should take these aspects into account right from the design phase in order to guarantee a trouble-free processing process and constant component quality.
In the design of a gating system the focus is on the component. Factors that influence the design of the gating system include:
* targeted surface quality,
* mechanical requirements,
* specified thermoplastic,
* complexity of the geometry and
* economic efficiency.
Runners and sprues that are dimensioned too small lead to excessive load on the melt due to high shear in the gating system. In extreme cases this may lead to chemical degradation, resulting in a drastic reduction in the mechanical capacity and streaking in the gate section or over the entire molding. To ensure optimal processing, the following points are coordinated step by step:
* gate location,
* gating technology,
* gate type and
* dimensioning of the gating system.
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