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Creating A Process-driven Organization

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By Author: Sherry Roberts
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Organization designs are becoming more complex due to the complexity of the design of the business complexity (Galbaraith, 2002). Organizations today require adapting the complexity that is in the market so as to stay in the fierce competition. In the light of the requirements, competition in the marketing is driving the executives rethink o their traditional configuration. There are new to ways of carrying out tasks and organizing tasks is due to the increased requirements and market competitions. The new way of organizing the work tasks puts its focus on workflow within an organization, and it also emphasizes process orientation as a crucial factor for the management. The process paradigm is what drives the process-driven organization. The paradigm looks horizontally at the organization’s activities towards the creation of business processes (Hernaus, 2008). The paper's aim is to demystify the process driven organization model of design.
Organizational structure for IT department
The process-based organizational structure is appropriate for the IT department whereby in this structure there is the specialization of labor. It fragments processes into simple tasks one perform can carry out comfortably. That kind of functional approach lets the management have control of the functional operations in the organizations. There is also subdividing or the same into the corporate structure, especially for large businesses. Having this structure is what led to the usage of charts and organizational structures as a very important tool for the management. The structural design of organizations endeavors to achieve three major tasks including designation of formal reporting relationships, and identifying the grouping together of persons and departments. The other thing is to design organizations in such a way that there are effective communication mechanisms, proper work coordination and the amalgamation of efforts across the entire organization (Vanhaverrbeke & Torremans, 1998). Functional as well as the product decompositions are vital in achieving the various tasks in the company. Hybrid and matrix organizational structures try to combine product as well as the functional decompositions. The hybrid and matrix organizational structures are different from each other through there is a point of convergence between them, namely the management philosophy.
Selection of a project
There is a need for having an appropriate process of selecting the project for AgCrdit so that the project will align with the vision of the company. There are some steps t leverage in project selection process because any process entails the employment of steps.
1. Problem definition
It is the foremost step in the process of project determining the project selection. It involves the understanding of the problem that the project will be solving. The project leader at this point has to create a charter, a high-level view of the business process and have a though knowledge of the needs of the process’ customers. There should be confirmation of the problem caused by the process, and this leads to the development of a problem statement that is clear and solvable. The team then prioritizes the problem and the impact it is likely to have on the normal business process. The problem statement should show the problem severity, its impact on the business functions and the specific departments or area where the problem is. Outlining of those essential elements of a problem will guide in finding the project sponsor and having support from the senior executives. There should also be goal definition through defining the goal statement and the development of the process using SIPOC tool.

2. Measure
The measurement step entails the examination of the why the processes are performing currently, and that will continue throughout the project life cycle. The project team carries out the gathering of data so as to understand the cause of the process and the necessary requirements for the process to be in line with the company vision. The phase also looks at what is causing the problem in the process executions. That is what helps create a plan for data collection to find out the baseline and data for the cause of the problem. The data usually gathered need to be accurate and reliable. The team needs to define, test and refine the measurements throughout the entire project lifecycle.
3. Analysis
The phase intertwines with the previous measurement phase because the data collected in the previous step undergoes analysis in this phase. The team in this phase reviews the data collected in the previous phase and make suggestions if more information is in the requirement. They have the obligation of creating, examining and verifying the processes maps from the previous maps and then list their concerns for the process. The team takes advantage of the expertise of each team member in performing in-depth analysis of the processes. The analysis should incorporate time, value added, and value stream mapping analyzes. The team then creates a visual presentation of the data analyzed using various reporting methods such as charts and other visual graphs. The visual representation of the data is for the purpose of helping project participants and the leadership to understand the need for the project.
The team then will brainstorm the potential cause if the problem at hand and develop theories about the possible causes of the flaw. They will make use of the tool known as “Cause and Effect Diagram” and the tool will be very helpful in helping drill down and to the crucial few causes of the problem. The team should verify the causative problem agents before proceeding to the next phase and in doing that they will employ process analysis, data analysis, and comparative analysis as well a process observations. The team will then make updates to the project charter so as to include more accurate reflection of the status of the project.
4. Improve
It is the phase that entails the implementation and verification of the solution. The team will be collecting ideas throughout the project that will be for the improvement of the project, but the improvement in the structure of the project can offer more elegant solutions. They will carry out the brainstorming of solutions that are likely to aid in fixing the problem. They will have creative idea generation, and this will help them find solutions that are out of the box. To choose between different solution approaches, they will make use of weighted criteria matrix tool that helps in making the best decision. They will develop maps of processes based on the different solutions, and the maps will be helpful in directing the efforts of the team towards the new processes. They will select the best solutions, implement those solutions and then measure the improvement. When there is verification of measurable improvement, then the team will proceed to the control phase.
5. Control
The phase entails the maintenance of the solutions opted for by the team. The phase is some version of the process management, and it is where the team begins to develop documentation on how to implement the structure they have been developing throughout them project. They will continuously use lean principles to make improvements to the process. There are four principles that are vital to this case, and they include value, flow, pull and perfection (Tutorialspoint.com, 2015). They should have to ensure that they have proper monitoring and management of the process, and the monitoring entails the levels at which the process needs to operate. The team will then make expansion to the improved process, apply new knowledge and then they will have the required project for the solution to the problem. The adherence to all these steps will aid in the selection of the project that meets the company’s vision.
SOA case study
The Service Oriented Architecture that the Manley should make for the approval of the executive should; be the one that delivers business value. They should, in this case, create comprehensive, dynamic and collaborative applications that are very convincing and well understandable to the executives. The case applications need to be sensitive to the content as well as the context of the specific business process. It should entail a model that effectively integrates the information and business logic of all the necessary systems. Manley should use the techniques that allow diverse and redundant systems to have address via a common and coherent single interface. It needs to protect the IT investments without inhibiting the application of new capabilities (Abraham et al., 2010). It should amalgamate the information technology investments with the business strategy for it to be convincing to the executives.
IT capabilities
The IT capabilities in the requirement for the company to have an IT department in place that can help to support the business architecture in AgCredit should be in line with various requirements. The company will have to assess the skills of the IT department and if need finds ways to improve on those skills. The IT team should have various capabilities individually as this will give the necessary forces needed in those areas for a complete IT department (Jones et al., 2010). The IT should have technical skills and commercial skills so that they will harmoniously integrate with the business process requirements for the company. The department personnel should have the ability to deliver successful projects and programs. The IT department should consist of digital leaders with accountability for implementation of digital strategies for advancing the cultural, organizational change (Selig, 2008).
Aspects of IT governance
The following are the aspects of IT governance that will be imperative in driving the development of an IT department for the purpose of business success. They include:
• Direct and control IT
• Align the IT with business plans and objectives
• Develop good management of IT assets and resources
• Use the IT ion managing customer and employee demands
• Make use of the IT in achieving value delivery and provision of executive management.
• Using IT in managing risks, change and performance
Conclusion
The process-oriented architecture for organizations is indispensable as it helps to deliver the required business value to meet the business objectives and vision. There is a need for proper governance in the IT department and the leveraging of expertise so that there is the proper integration of business processes with IT. When IT has proper integration with IT, then the business can achieve their goals and can continue to operate in the market that is very competitive. Organizations should, therefore, endeavor to have process oriented architectures with necessary IT infrastructure to achieve anticipated results.

Creating a process-driven Organization
Organization designs are becoming more complex due to the complexity of the design of the business complexity (Galbaraith, 2002). Organizations today require adapting the complexity that is in the market so as to stay in the fierce competition. In the light of the requirements, competition in the marketing is driving the executives rethink o their traditional configuration. There are new to ways of carrying out tasks and organizing tasks is due to the increased requirements and market competitions. The new way of organizing the work tasks puts its focus on workflow within an organization, and it also emphasizes process orientation as a crucial factor for the management. The process paradigm is what drives the process-driven organization. The paradigm looks horizontally at the organization’s activities towards the creation of business processes (Hernaus, 2008). The paper's aim is to demystify the process driven organization model of design.
Organizational structure for IT department
The process-based organizational structure is appropriate for the IT department whereby in this structure there is the specialization of labor. It fragments processes into simple tasks one perform can carry out comfortably. That kind of functional approach lets the management have control of the functional operations in the organizations. There is also subdividing or the same into the corporate structure, especially for large businesses. Having this structure is what led to the usage of charts and organizational structures as a very important tool for the management. The structural design of organizations endeavors to achieve three major tasks including designation of formal reporting relationships, and identifying the grouping together of persons and departments. The other thing is to design organizations in such a way that there are effective communication mechanisms, proper work coordination and the amalgamation of efforts across the entire organization (Vanhaverrbeke & Torremans, 1998). Functional as well as the product decompositions are vital in achieving the various tasks in the company. Hybrid and matrix organizational structures try to combine product as well as the functional decompositions. The hybrid and matrix organizational structures are different from each other through there is a point of convergence between them, namely the management philosophy.
Selection of a project
There is a need for having an appropriate process of selecting the project for AgCrdit so that the project will align with the vision of the company. There are some steps t leverage in project selection process because any process entails the employment of steps.
6. Problem definition
It is the foremost step in the process of project determining the project selection. It involves the understanding of the problem that the project will be solving. The project leader at this point has to create a charter, a high-level view of the business process and have a though knowledge of the needs of the process’ customers. There should be confirmation of the problem caused by the process, and this leads to the development of a problem statement that is clear and solvable. The team then prioritizes the problem and the impact it is likely to have on the normal business process. The problem statement should show the problem severity, its impact on the business functions and the specific departments or area where the problem is. Outlining of those essential elements of a problem will guide in finding the project sponsor and having support from the senior executives. There should also be goal definition through defining the goal statement and the development of the process using SIPOC tool.

7. Measure
The measurement step entails the examination of the why the processes are performing currently, and that will continue throughout the project life cycle. The project team carries out the gathering of data so as to understand the cause of the process and the necessary requirements for the process to be in line with the company vision. The phase also looks at what is causing the problem in the process executions. That is what helps create a plan for data collection to find out the baseline and data for the cause of the problem. The data usually gathered need to be accurate and reliable. The team needs to define, test and refine the measurements throughout the entire project lifecycle.
8. Analysis
The phase intertwines with the previous measurement phase because the data collected in the previous step undergoes analysis in this phase. The team in this phase reviews the data collected in the previous phase and make suggestions if more information is in the requirement. They have the obligation of creating, examining and verifying the processes maps from the previous maps and then list their concerns for the process. The team takes advantage of the expertise of each team member in performing in-depth analysis of the processes. The analysis should incorporate time, value added, and value stream mapping analyzes. The team then creates a visual presentation of the data analyzed using various reporting methods such as charts and other visual graphs. The visual representation of the data is for the purpose of helping project participants and the leadership to understand the need for the project.
The team then will brainstorm the potential cause if the problem at hand and develop theories about the possible causes of the flaw. They will make use of the tool known as “Cause and Effect Diagram” and the tool will be very helpful in helping drill down and to the crucial few causes of the problem. The team should verify the causative problem agents before proceeding to the next phase and in doing that they will employ process analysis, data analysis, and comparative analysis as well a process observations. The team will then make updates to the project charter so as to include more accurate reflection of the status of the project.
9. Improve
It is the phase that entails the implementation and verification of the solution. The team will be collecting ideas throughout the project that will be for the improvement of the project, but the improvement in the structure of the project can offer more elegant solutions. They will carry out the brainstorming of solutions that are likely to aid in fixing the problem. They will have creative idea generation, and this will help them find solutions that are out of the box. To choose between different solution approaches, they will make use of weighted criteria matrix tool that helps in making the best decision. They will develop maps of processes based on the different solutions, and the maps will be helpful in directing the efforts of the team towards the new processes. They will select the best solutions, implement those solutions and then measure the improvement. When there is verification of measurable improvement, then the team will proceed to the control phase.
10. Control
The phase entails the maintenance of the solutions opted for by the team. The phase is some version of the process management, and it is where the team begins to develop documentation on how to implement the structure they have been developing throughout them project. They will continuously use lean principles to make improvements to the process. There are four principles that are vital to this case, and they include value, flow, pull and perfection (Tutorialspoint.com, 2015). They should have to ensure that they have proper monitoring and management of the process, and the monitoring entails the levels at which the process needs to operate. The team will then make expansion to the improved process, apply new knowledge and then they will have the required project for the solution to the problem. The adherence to all these steps will aid in the selection of the project that meets the company’s vision.
SOA case study
The Service Oriented Architecture that the Manley should make for the approval of the executive should; be the one that delivers business value. They should, in this case, create comprehensive, dynamic and collaborative applications that are very convincing and well understandable to the executives. The case applications need to be sensitive to the content as well as the context of the specific business process. It should entail a model that effectively integrates the information and business logic of all the necessary systems. Manley should use the techniques that allow diverse and redundant systems to have address via a common and coherent single interface. It needs to protect the IT investments without inhibiting the application of new capabilities (Abraham et al., 2010). It should amalgamate the information technology investments with the business strategy for it to be convincing to the executives.
IT capabilities
The IT capabilities in the requirement for the company to have an IT department in place that can help to support the business architecture in AgCredit should be in line with various requirements. The company will have to assess the skills of the IT department and if need finds ways to improve on those skills. The IT team should have various capabilities individually as this will give the necessary forces needed in those areas for a complete IT department (Jones et al., 2010). The IT should have technical skills and commercial skills so that they will harmoniously integrate with the business process requirements for the company. The department personnel should have the ability to deliver successful projects and programs. The IT department should consist of digital leaders with accountability for implementation of digital strategies for advancing the cultural, organizational change (Selig, 2008).
Aspects of IT governance
The following are the aspects of IT governance that will be imperative in driving the development of an IT department for the purpose of business success. They include:
• Direct and control IT
• Align the IT with business plans and objectives
• Develop good management of IT assets and resources
• Use the IT ion managing customer and employee demands
• Make use of the IT in achieving value delivery and provision of executive management.
• Using IT in managing risks, change and performance
Conclusion
The process-oriented architecture for organizations is indispensable as it helps to deliver the required business value to meet the business objectives and vision. There is a need for proper governance in the IT department and the leveraging of expertise so that there is the proper integration of business processes with IT. When IT has proper integration with IT, then the business can achieve their goals and can continue to operate in the market that is very competitive. Organizations should, therefore, endeavor to have process oriented architectures with necessary IT infrastructure to achieve anticipated results.

References
Abraham, C. et al (2010). Systems analysis and design for service oriented architecture projects. Journal of emerging trends in computing and Information Sciences, 2(1)
Hernaus, T. (2008). Process-based organization design model: Theoretical review and model conceptualization.
Jones, D. et al. (2010). “ACCORD capability model” (1st Ed.), ACCORD, corporation, USA.
Selig, G. (2008). Implementing IT governance.
Tutorialspoint.com (2015). Project selection methods.
Vanhaverrbeke, W. & Torremans, H. (1998). Organizational structure in process-based organizations.


Creating a process-driven Organization
Organization designs are becoming more complex due to the complexity of the design of the business complexity (Galbaraith, 2002). Organizations today require adapting the complexity that is in the market so as to stay in the fierce competition. In the light of the requirements, competition in the marketing is driving the executives rethink o their traditional configuration. There are new to ways of carrying out tasks and organizing tasks is due to the increased requirements and market competitions. The new way of organizing the work tasks puts its focus on workflow within an organization, and it also emphasizes process orientation as a crucial factor for the management. The process paradigm is what drives the process-driven organization. The paradigm looks horizontally at the organization’s activities towards the creation of business processes (Hernaus, 2008). The paper's aim is to demystify the process driven organization model of design.
Organizational structure for IT department
The process-based organizational structure is appropriate for the IT department whereby in this structure there is the specialization of labor. It fragments processes into simple tasks one perform can carry out comfortably. That kind of functional approach lets the management have control of the functional operations in the organizations. There is also subdividing or the same into the corporate structure, especially for large businesses. Having this structure is what led to the usage of charts and organizational structures as a very important tool for the management. The structural design of organizations endeavors to achieve three major tasks including designation of formal reporting relationships, and identifying the grouping together of persons and departments. The other thing is to design organizations in such a way that there are effective communication mechanisms, proper work coordination and the amalgamation of efforts across the entire organization (Vanhaverrbeke & Torremans, 1998). Functional as well as the product decompositions are vital in achieving the various tasks in the company. Hybrid and matrix organizational structures try to combine product as well as the functional decompositions. The hybrid and matrix organizational structures are different from each other through there is a point of convergence between them, namely the management philosophy.
Selection of a project
There is a need for having an appropriate process of selecting the project for AgCrdit so that the project will align with the vision of the company. There are some steps t leverage in project selection process because any process entails the employment of steps.
11. Problem definition
It is the foremost step in the process of project determining the project selection. It involves the understanding of the problem that the project will be solving. The project leader at this point has to create a charter, a high-level view of the business process and have a though knowledge of the needs of the process’ customers. There should be confirmation of the problem caused by the process, and this leads to the development of a problem statement that is clear and solvable. The team then prioritizes the problem and the impact it is likely to have on the normal business process. The problem statement should show the problem severity, its impact on the business functions and the specific departments or area where the problem is. Outlining of those essential elements of a problem will guide in finding the project sponsor and having support from the senior executives. There should also be goal definition through defining the goal statement and the development of the process using SIPOC tool.

12. Measure
The measurement step entails the examination of the why the processes are performing currently, and that will continue throughout the project life cycle. The project team carries out the gathering of data so as to understand the cause of the process and the necessary requirements for the process to be in line with the company vision. The phase also looks at what is causing the problem in the process executions. That is what helps create a plan for data collection to find out the baseline and data for the cause of the problem. The data usually gathered need to be accurate and reliable. The team needs to define, test and refine the measurements throughout the entire project lifecycle.
13. Analysis
The phase intertwines with the previous measurement phase because the data collected in the previous step undergoes analysis in this phase. The team in this phase reviews the data collected in the previous phase and make suggestions if more information is in the requirement. They have the obligation of creating, examining and verifying the processes maps from the previous maps and then list their concerns for the process. The team takes advantage of the expertise of each team member in performing in-depth analysis of the processes. The analysis should incorporate time, value added, and value stream mapping analyzes. The team then creates a visual presentation of the data analyzed using various reporting methods such as charts and other visual graphs. The visual representation of the data is for the purpose of helping project participants and the leadership to understand the need for the project.
The team then will brainstorm the potential cause if the problem at hand and develop theories about the possible causes of the flaw. They will make use of the tool known as “Cause and Effect Diagram” and the tool will be very helpful in helping drill down and to the crucial few causes of the problem. The team should verify the causative problem agents before proceeding to the next phase and in doing that they will employ process analysis, data analysis, and comparative analysis as well a process observations. The team will then make updates to the project charter so as to include more accurate reflection of the status of the project.
14. Improve
It is the phase that entails the implementation and verification of the solution. The team will be collecting ideas throughout the project that will be for the improvement of the project, but the improvement in the structure of the project can offer more elegant solutions. They will carry out the brainstorming of solutions that are likely to aid in fixing the problem. They will have creative idea generation, and this will help them find solutions that are out of the box. To choose between different solution approaches, they will make use of weighted criteria matrix tool that helps in making the best decision. They will develop maps of processes based on the different solutions, and the maps will be helpful in directing the efforts of the team towards the new processes. They will select the best solutions, implement those solutions and then measure the improvement. When there is verification of measurable improvement, then the team will proceed to the control phase.
15. Control
The phase entails the maintenance of the solutions opted for by the team. The phase is some version of the process management, and it is where the team begins to develop documentation on how to implement the structure they have been developing throughout them project. They will continuously use lean principles to make improvements to the process. There are four principles that are vital to this case, and they include value, flow, pull and perfection (Tutorialspoint.com, 2015). They should have to ensure that they have proper monitoring and management of the process, and the monitoring entails the levels at which the process needs to operate. The team will then make expansion to the improved process, apply new knowledge and then they will have the required project for the solution to the problem. The adherence to all these steps will aid in the selection of the project that meets the company’s vision.
SOA case study
The Service Oriented Architecture that the Manley should make for the approval of the executive should; be the one that delivers business value. They should, in this case, create comprehensive, dynamic and collaborative applications that are very convincing and well understandable to the executives. The case applications need to be sensitive to the content as well as the context of the specific business process. It should entail a model that effectively integrates the information and business logic of all the necessary systems. Manley should use the techniques that allow diverse and redundant systems to have address via a common and coherent single interface. It needs to protect the IT investments without inhibiting the application of new capabilities (Abraham et al., 2010). It should amalgamate the information technology investments with the business strategy for it to be convincing to the executives.
IT capabilities
The IT capabilities in the requirement for the company to have an IT department in place that can help to support the business architecture in AgCredit should be in line with various requirements. The company will have to assess the skills of the IT department and if need finds ways to improve on those skills. The IT team should have various capabilities individually as this will give the necessary forces needed in those areas for a complete IT department (Jones et al., 2010). The IT should have technical skills and commercial skills so that they will harmoniously integrate with the business process requirements for the company. The department personnel should have the ability to deliver successful projects and programs. The IT department should consist of digital leaders with accountability for implementation of digital strategies for advancing the cultural, organizational change (Selig, 2008).
Aspects of IT governance
The following are the aspects of IT governance that will be imperative in driving the development of an IT department for the purpose of business success. They include:
• Direct and control IT
• Align the IT with business plans and objectives
• Develop good management of IT assets and resources
• Use the IT ion managing customer and employee demands
• Make use of the IT in achieving value delivery and provision of executive management.
• Using IT in managing risks, change and performance
Conclusion
The process-oriented architecture for organizations is indispensable as it helps to deliver the required business value to meet the business objectives and vision. There is a need for proper governance in the IT department and the leveraging of expertise so that there is the proper integration of business processes with IT. When IT has proper integration with IT, then the business can achieve their goals and can continue to operate in the market that is very competitive. Organizations should, therefore, endeavor to have process oriented architectures with necessary IT infrastructure to achieve anticipated results.

References
Abraham, C. et al (2010). Systems analysis and design for service oriented architecture projects. Journal of emerging trends in computing and Information Sciences, 2(1)
Hernaus, T. (2008). Process-based organization design model: Theoretical review and model conceptualization.
Jones, D. et al. (2010). “ACCORD capability model” (1st Ed.), ACCORD, corporation, USA.
Selig, G. (2008). Implementing IT governance.
Vanhaverrbeke, W. & Torremans, H. (1998). Organizational structure in process-based organizations.


Creating a process-driven Organization
Organization designs are becoming more complex due to the complexity of the design of the business complexity (Galbaraith, 2002). Organizations today require adapting the complexity that is in the market so as to stay in the fierce competition. In the light of the requirements, competition in the marketing is driving the executives rethink o their traditional configuration. There are new to ways of carrying out tasks and organizing tasks is due to the increased requirements and market competitions. The new way of organizing the work tasks puts its focus on workflow within an organization, and it also emphasizes process orientation as a crucial factor for the management. The process paradigm is what drives the process-driven organization. The paradigm looks horizontally at the organization’s activities towards the creation of business processes (Hernaus, 2008). The paper's aim is to demystify the process driven organization model of design.
Organizational structure for IT department
The process-based organizational structure is appropriate for the IT department whereby in this structure there is the specialization of labor. It fragments processes into simple tasks one perform can carry out comfortably. That kind of functional approach lets the management have control of the functional operations in the organizations. There is also subdividing or the same into the corporate structure, especially for large businesses. Having this structure is what led to the usage of charts and organizational structures as a very important tool for the management. The structural design of organizations endeavors to achieve three major tasks including designation of formal reporting relationships, and identifying the grouping together of persons and departments. The other thing is to design organizations in such a way that there are effective communication mechanisms, proper work coordination and the amalgamation of efforts across the entire organization (Vanhaverrbeke & Torremans, 1998). Functional as well as the product decompositions are vital in achieving the various tasks in the company. Hybrid and matrix organizational structures try to combine product as well as the functional decompositions. The hybrid and matrix organizational structures are different from each other through there is a point of convergence between them, namely the management philosophy.
Selection of a project
There is a need for having an appropriate process of selecting the project for AgCrdit so that the project will align with the vision of the company. There are some steps t leverage in project selection process because any process entails the employment of steps.
16. Problem definition
It is the foremost step in the process of project determining the project selection. It involves the understanding of the problem that the project will be solving. The project leader at this point has to create a charter, a high-level view of the business process and have a though knowledge of the needs of the process’ customers. There should be confirmation of the problem caused by the process, and this leads to the development of a problem statement that is clear and solvable. The team then prioritizes the problem and the impact it is likely to have on the normal business process. The problem statement should show the problem severity, its impact on the business functions and the specific departments or area where the problem is. Outlining of those essential elements of a problem will guide in finding the project sponsor and having support from the senior executives. There should also be goal definition through defining the goal statement and the development of the process using SIPOC tool.

17. Measure
The measurement step entails the examination of the why the processes are performing currently, and that will continue throughout the project life cycle. The project team carries out the gathering of data so as to understand the cause of the process and the necessary requirements for the process to be in line with the company vision. The phase also looks at what is causing the problem in the process executions. That is what helps create a plan for data collection to find out the baseline and data for the cause of the problem. The data usually gathered need to be accurate and reliable. The team needs to define, test and refine the measurements throughout the entire project lifecycle.
18. Analysis
The phase intertwines with the previous measurement phase because the data collected in the previous step undergoes analysis in this phase. The team in this phase reviews the data collected in the previous phase and make suggestions if more information is in the requirement. They have the obligation of creating, examining and verifying the processes maps from the previous maps and then list their concerns for the process. The team takes advantage of the expertise of each team member in performing in-depth analysis of the processes. The analysis should incorporate time, value added, and value stream mapping analyzes. The team then creates a visual presentation of the data analyzed using various reporting methods such as charts and other visual graphs. The visual representation of the data is for the purpose of helping project participants and the leadership to understand the need for the project.
The team then will brainstorm the potential cause if the problem at hand and develop theories about the possible causes of the flaw. They will make use of the tool known as “Cause and Effect Diagram” and the tool will be very helpful in helping drill down and to the crucial few causes of the problem. The team should verify the causative problem agents before proceeding to the next phase and in doing that they will employ process analysis, data analysis, and comparative analysis as well a process observations. The team will then make updates to the project charter so as to include more accurate reflection of the status of the project.
19. Improve
It is the phase that entails the implementation and verification of the solution. The team will be collecting ideas throughout the project that will be for the improvement of the project, but the improvement in the structure of the project can offer more elegant solutions. They will carry out the brainstorming of solutions that are likely to aid in fixing the problem. They will have creative idea generation, and this will help them find solutions that are out of the box. To choose between different solution approaches, they will make use of weighted criteria matrix tool that helps in making the best decision. They will develop maps of processes based on the different solutions, and the maps will be helpful in directing the efforts of the team towards the new processes. They will select the best solutions, implement those solutions and then measure the improvement. When there is verification of measurable improvement, then the team will proceed to the control phase.
20. Control
The phase entails the maintenance of the solutions opted for by the team. The phase is some version of the process management, and it is where the team begins to develop documentation on how to implement the structure they have been developing throughout them project. They will continuously use lean principles to make improvements to the process. There are four principles that are vital to this case, and they include value, flow, pull and perfection (Tutorialspoint.com, 2015). They should have to ensure that they have proper monitoring and management of the process, and the monitoring entails the levels at which the process needs to operate. The team will then make expansion to the improved process, apply new knowledge and then they will have the required project for the solution to the problem. The adherence to all these steps will aid in the selection of the project that meets the company’s vision.
SOA case study
The Service Oriented Architecture that the Manley should make for the approval of the executive should; be the one that delivers business value. They should, in this case, create comprehensive, dynamic and collaborative applications that are very convincing and well understandable to the executives. The case applications need to be sensitive to the content as well as the context of the specific business process. It should entail a model that effectively integrates the information and business logic of all the necessary systems. Manley should use the techniques that allow diverse and redundant systems to have address via a common and coherent single interface. It needs to protect the IT investments without inhibiting the application of new capabilities (Abraham et al., 2010). It should amalgamate the information technology investments with the business strategy for it to be convincing to the executives.
IT capabilities
The IT capabilities in the requirement for the company to have an IT department in place that can help to support the business architecture in AgCredit should be in line with various requirements. The company will have to assess the skills of the IT department and if need finds ways to improve on those skills. The IT team should have various capabilities individually as this will give the necessary forces needed in those areas for a complete IT department (Jones et al., 2010). The IT should have technical skills and commercial skills so that they will harmoniously integrate with the business process requirements for the company. The department personnel should have the ability to deliver successful projects and programs. The IT department should consist of digital leaders with accountability for implementation of digital strategies for advancing the cultural, organizational change (Selig, 2008).
Aspects of IT governance
The following are the aspects of IT governance that will be imperative in driving the development of an IT department for the purpose of business success. They include:
• Direct and control IT
• Align the IT with business plans and objectives
• Develop good management of IT assets and resources
• Use the IT ion managing customer and employee demands
• Make use of the IT in achieving value delivery and provision of executive management.
• Using IT in managing risks, change and performance
Conclusion
The process-oriented architecture for organizations is indispensable as it helps to deliver the required business value to meet the business objectives and vision. There is a need for proper governance in the IT department and the leveraging of expertise so that there is the proper integration of business processes with IT. When IT has proper integration with IT, then the business can achieve their goals and can continue to operate in the market that is very competitive. Organizations should, therefore, endeavor to have process oriented architectures with necessary IT infrastructure to achieve anticipated results.

References
Abraham, C. et al (2010). Systems analysis and design for service oriented architecture projects. Journal of emerging trends in computing and Information Sciences, 2(1)
Hernaus, T. (2008). Process-based organization design model: Theoretical review and model conceptualization.
Jones, D. et al. (2010). “ACCORD capability model” (1st Ed.), ACCORD, corporation, USA.
Selig, G. (2008). Implementing IT governance.
Tutorialspoint.com (2015). Project selection methods.
Vanhaverrbeke, W. & Torremans, H. (1998). Organizational structure in process-based organizations.

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