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Dc Motor, How It Works?
Direct current (DC) motors were first developed in 1830’s-1840’s. however, they were commercially unsuccessful especially because they were powered by batteries. These motors lacked practical markets in mid-1800 due to poor batteries and their high costs. Later the motors became commercially viable due to invention of electrical grid and availability of rechargeable batteries.
As a result, brushed DC Motors (German: DC-Motoren) were continuously improved and are widely used in many applications today. Other types of electromotor like the brushless motors and induction motors were also developed. The applications of the DC motors are limited today due to this inventions and developments.
The Construction and Operation of The Brushed DC Motors
It consists of two main parts, the stator and the rotor. The stator can be made of either two permanent magnets or electromagnetic windings. As the word, stator suggests the stator is the static part and makes the outer part of the dc motor. The rotor ‘armature’ is placed inside the motor where it cuts magnetic fields produced by the stator winding or the permanent magnet. The rotor is made up by coil windings, which are connected to dc power source. When the armature is powered, a magnetic field is created around the rotor. Rotation of the armature is because of attraction and repulsion. One side of the armature is attracted in one side and the other side is repelled.
The commutator maintains the rotation, direction of flow of current and the direction of the magnetic field. When the rotor is aligned horizontally and parallel to the lines of magnetic flux, both brushes meet opposite side of the commutator. This makes the rotor current to be reversed and hence the magnetic field. This process is recurred as long as power is supplied to the dc motor.
Types Of Brushed DC Motors
There are four main types of brushed dc motors:
i. Permanent magnet dc motor
ii. Series motor
iii. Shunt motor
iv. Compound motor
ADVANTAGES OF BRUSHED DC MOTORS
Brushed DC Motors (DC-Motoren) have a simple and cheap drive design. Series dc motors have a direct relationship of the applied voltage and the speed of rotation in a given load i.e. the greater the voltage applied the greater the speed. Therefore, speed and torque can be controlled by changing the amount of applied voltage. Dc motors do not require complex electronics for control. The dc motor has an advantage such that they give room for quick start-stop acceleration.
LIMITATIONS OF BRUSHED DC MOTORS
The presence of brushes in the motor is a disadvantage. This is because they wear out rapidly which means a high maintenance cost. DC Motors ( DC-Motoren) cannot operate under hazardous conditions. Sparks also occur due the brushes. Although the voltage will give the control of speed and torque, areas that need higher precision require you to add complex electronics to acquire the desired level of control.
Different applications depend on the different type dc motors. However, the following are some common applications of dc motors.
• Conveyor belts
• Motor starter in vehicles
• Machine tools
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