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Homework #5

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By Author: Sherry Roberts
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1. Define tumor marker and oncofetal antigen.
A tumor marker is a blood, body tissue or urine substance that is higher than the normal levels in some people diagnosed with cancer. Oncofetal antigens are substances that tumors or fetal tissues produce, although, in adults, their production is in low quantities.
2. Describe the properties of an ideal tumor marker.
• An ideal marker needs to prognosticate a higher or a lower risk in the event of eventual recurrence development.
• An ideal also has the characteristic of changing with the change of the current status of the tumor.
• Another characteristic of an ideal tumor marker is that they predict as well as preceded recurrences before being clinically detectable.
3. What are the differences between tumor-associated and tumor-specific antigens?
The expression of tumor specific antigens takes place in tumor cells, whereas that for tumor-associated antigens takes place in both the normal and tumor cells. Tumor-specific antigens contain the alpha-fetoprotein as well as hepatocellular carcinoma while tumor-associated antigens have characterization by melanoma-associated antigen expressed in the testis and malignant melanoma.
4. What hormones are diagnostically significant as tumor markers? To what tumors do they have an association?
I. Adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH): causes pituitary tumor
II. Calcitonin: It causes medullary thyroid carcinoma
III. Catecholamine: Causes pheochromocytoma
IV. Gastrin: Causes tumor known as gastrinoma
V. Prolactin: Causes a tumor known as pituitary tumor

From pituitary and adrenal chapters and lecture:
1. What are the function of each of the following hormones:
• Cortisol: It influences as well as regulates the many of the changes including in the body regarding the response to stress.
• AVP: Arginine vasopressin functions to moderate the extracellular fluid volume by impacting the renal handling of water.
• GH: the function of the growth hormone is to stimulate the growth of almost all the body tissues including the bones.
• ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic hormone acts as a stimulant to the adrenal cortex, and it also causes glucocorticoids secretion. It also controls melanocyte pigmentation.
2. What hormones are secreted or stored in each pituitary lobe?
1) Those secreted by the anterior pituitary gland include:
• Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
• Luteinizing Hormone
• Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
• Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
• Growth Hormone
• Prolactin
2) The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe include:
• Oxytocin
• Arginine vasopressin
3. What is negative feedback related to hormone interaction? Describe an example loop to demonstrate that you understand the concept.
A negative feedback about hormone interaction is the reaction that causes a decrease in the body function. Negative feedbacks in the body help in the reversing of changes in a controlled state. It tends to bring back to balance the conditions of the body.

4. Compare and contrast symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome and Addison’s disease
In both the Cushing’s syndrome and Addison’s disease, the symptoms include hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia leads to Addison’s disease while the symptom for Cushing’s syndrome is hypernatremia. While hyperkalemia is the symptom of Addison’s disease, Moonface is the symptom for Cushing Syndrome. While the increase of tolerance to stress is the symptom of Addison’s disease, increased susceptibility to infection is the one for Cushing Syndrome.
5. How does a diurnal variation of cortisol affect laboratory cortisol results and help diagnose Cushing’s?
If there are insufficient cortisol and the tested person responds to the Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test, that means there is the insufficient production of the Adrenocorticotropic hormone. An increased of a normal level of cortisol suggests that there is Cushing syndrome.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at Melda Research in Buy Term Papers Online if you need a similar paper you can place your order for a custom research paper from Custom Research Paper Writing

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Author is associated with MeldaResearch.Com which is a global Custom Essay Writing and Term Paper Writing Company. If you would like help in Research Papers and Term Paper Help you can visit Custom Writing Service

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