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Jennifer is suffering from acute pharyngitis in because of the high temperature of 101oF and 103.2oF. Skin is hot and dry. She has periphery red tympanic membranes. Other symptoms are the erythematous with 4+ tonsils and tonsils exudates. The tender and palpable cervical nodes. The Bacterial Pharyngitis is a condition in which the Beta-hemolytic streptococci cause large portions of hemolysis on the agr. Blood and aid in the identification of microbiology. The cell wall carbohydrates, Lancefield antigens, contribute to further streptococci. S pyogenes, differentiation that displays beta-hemolytic, and contain Antigens of group A. equisimilis is the subspecies of Streptococcus dysgalactiae together with other groups in Streptococcus anginosus can share similar laboratory characteristics with the S pyogenic but does not commonly lead to human diseases. The M protein is the most common factor of GABHS. The protein is in the cell wall periphery and it is the factor contributing to invasive infection. Additionally, the GABHS contains a capsule of hyaluronic acid that plays a vital role in infections. The bacteria release the capsule in large quantities leading to the appearance of mucoid characteristics on blood agar.
Additionally, some hyaluronic acid neurotoxins are the superantigens that work in regulating the T cells. The superantigens work in promoting the release of cytokines for pro-inflammatory and my further synergize with the Lipopolysaccharide. When the superantigens evade the immune response of the pharyngeal, it results to GABHS and further allowing the elimination immune-mediated commensal organisms.
Additionally, the GABHS attachment can be enabled in regions like the pharynx. The attachment gives room for competition and colonization of the normal flora that is the host (Honor, 2006). There is also the production of erythrogenic toxins through other stating causing the scarlet fever rash. The large droplet nuclei can also spread the GABHS from one person to another. Thus, close quarters to the infected person in dormitories, daycares or barracks contribute to further transmission (Brandt et al., 2001).
Jack is most likely suffering from Occupational dermatitis in response to the external stimulus of an irritant or an allergen. He suffers from Redness and irritation, flaky, hotness of hands. He reports that he has recently been using abrasive solvents for cleaning because of the shortage of gloves in his workplace. Thus, this is a case of occupational dermatitis that is a skin condition resulting from exposure of the skin to a biological, chemical or physical agent within the workplace. The clinical result of this condition is pro-inflammatory cytokines release from the skin cells in response to the chemical stimuli. With excessive duration and concentration of exposures to` various chemical will irritate the coetaneous. The main irritants of the coetaneous are mechanical irritants, micro-trauma, and solvents. The solvents cause the irritation since they remove the vital oils and fats from the skin. It increases the water loss transepidermal and renders skin susceptible to direct toxic effects and other coetaneous exposure (de Jongh, van Dijk, Voss, et al. 2008).
Martha is suffering from the side effects of the Hypertension medication, hydrochlorothiazide. She is suffering from loss of sleep, racing heartbeat, and no appetite. Dyazide (hydrochlorothiazide) is a combination of potassium-sparing diuretic and thiazide diuretic (water pill) for treating hypertension and fluid retention. The drug's side effects include stomach upset, lightheadedness, and dizziness, loss of sleep and loss of appetite. The drug combines the anti kaliuretic and natriuretic. These components complement each other. The hydrochlorothiazide blocks the absorption of chloride ions and sodium, and this triggers the transverse of sodium quantity in the distal tubule. Furthermore, the sodium is presented and exchanged for hydrogen ions and potassium ions. Hydrochlorothiazide contributes to a decrease of uric acid and calcium excretion and an increase in iodide excretion leading to the reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Martha may also be starting to feel the signs of Impaired Renal Function such as shortness of breath because of the inability to discharge potassium from the bloodstream. This effect is contributing to abnormal heart rhyme and can lead to death (Valayatham, Kakarla, and Rymer, 2007).
Brandt, M et al. (2001). Characterization of consecutive Streptococcus pyrogens isolates from patients with pharyngitis and bacteriological treatment failure. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001: Vol. 183 (4), pp. 670-4.
De Jongh CM, van Dijk FJ, Voss H, et al. (2008) Loss-of-function polymorphisms in the flagging gene associates with an increased susceptibility to chronic irritant contact dermatitis: a case-control study. Br J Dermatol. 2008 Sep. 159(3):621-7.
Honor M (2006). A very unusual case of a sore throat. General Practitioner. 9/8/2006, p38-39. 2p. 1
Valayatham, V Kakarla, A. and Rymer, J. (2007) acute polyhydramnios causing bilateral obstructive hydronephrosis and impaired renal function. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Oct 2007, Vol. 27 Issue 7, p736-737. 2p.
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