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Confusion Moral Theory
Confucianism is East Asian ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. Confucianism is a complex system of moral, political, religious, and social thought that had a tremendous influence on the Chinese civilization history up to the 21st century. In Confucianism, the moral thought is comprehensive. Confusions argue that morality starts with you, and the confusion core has the belief that morality is constant. In this essay, the focus is on explaining the Confucian moral theory and the practice of political economy, law, and international relation.
Confucian moral theory
Confucius did live during the spring and autumn period. Confucius was a marginal personality whose heritage came from the commoners and aristocrats (Foss & Littlejohn 2009). Morality is not something that we choose to do with different scenarios or situations; however, it is constant in life. In the Confucian moral theory, it is not possible to distinguish between what is right and what is good as the right is good. Mencius is one of the fathers of Confucianism. According to Mencius, it is important to achieve a moral theory that is the middle way or the right cost where it is not too high, but not too low (Ni & Li 2014). A moral theory that has a cost that is very high will fail. Based on the theory, a morality that is high cost tends to be impossible and hypocritical because people will fail through not living to the expectations. When the cost is very high, people are likely to claim that they are living a moral life when they are not. People will hate what is moral because they cannot follow it. A moral theory that has too low of a cost is trivial because low-cost morality may not guide someone to what Confucians would consider the right life. Confucians argue against the moral commitment that is low that the cost is trivial. According to the Confucian, a moral theory that achieves the mean or middle is the way (Foss & Littlejohn 2009). In the Confucian core, there is no religious ground for the moral life. The morality should come from the human life and self-cooperation, and cultivation helps in achieving the middle way.
Based on the theory, every person has a self and the potential of being great. A person should cultivate the self so that they can achieve excellence (Ni & Li 2014). For followers of Confucians to take part in politics, it should engage primarily in the moral cultivation and the moral education and sincerely perform the moral principles in the government. Good morality tends to help social cooperation. The theory supports that morality is something that people should follow because it is good for them and not following that makes them immoral or a bad person. Morality is both about the society and self. People get to understand the large idea if put into practice and contribute to proper order and also a flourishing world.
In the Confucian theory, the right is the good, and it does not distinguish between what is a duty and what is good. Confucians do not distinguish between the liberty and the property. The theory considers morality as something that is comprehensive. For instance, when people get married and have children, the marriage will affect the business and society. Morality normally starts in the home and all through the family. It touches every part of the human existence, and it is not possible to be moral if other people are not moral.
It is not possible to live a moral life in isolation as morality is social. It involves team production and teamwork and the moral theory only works in societies where people, cooperate. In the Confucian tradition, harmony is a core moral value, and it contributes to the flourishing individuals. Morality should lead to a particular kind of happiness. If someone is a good person or contributes to the society, it ultimately leads to happiness, which is the happiness that one gets when they do something right and contributes to the fellow human beings. According to Confucian, when one acts moral, they act in a graded way. To be moral is living a life that is satisfying. The Confucian morality revolves around the family relationship and mostly around the children and parent relationship, between the husband and wife, and between the elder and younger brothers (Angle, 2012). The emphasis is on fulfilling the responsibilities of each other with a conscientious and sincere heart. Thus, Confucius considers the family virtues are the cornerstone of the social order and also the world peace.
Political economy, law, and international relation
Confucian understand the law as restorative justice when is the mending of broken human relationship. When a magistrate makes a decision, their ultimate goal is mending the broken human relationships. When a case is before the judge, the goal involves restoring something that broken or someone who did wrong. In Confucian law, the primary goal is not deciding who loses or wins, but restoring the broken relationships. In the procedural justice, the target is ensuring that within the set of rules, all treat people fairly. The procedural justice tends to protect people from the abuse of people, and it is a way of being fair.
According to the Confucian practice of law, the idea of collective liability tends to exist. If people are not successful with arbitration or mediation, the next step is the court or magistrate. Based on collective liability, every person can be at fault or liable. Every person tends to share in the responsibility. Confucian states that the role of the formal law codes is prescribing remedies for transgression or those wronged. Through arbitration and mediation, the judge can propose remedies while they are maintaining collective liability and also eliminating default mentality (Angle, 2012). Confucius discourages litigation and argues that compromise that everyone can live with is better than the court orders that normally destroy the human relationship. Confucius state that if the government not properly administered, people will not steal and the need for the family to report each other will not exist.
The Confucian political economy tends to substitute labor with the monopolies of representation to share the national decision-making with the state and capital. The monopolies of representation consist of quasi-governmental organizations that tend to share a high degree of functional and institutional integration. According to Confucian, they normally facilitate the relations between the firms and states with the government agencies leading the interest-group planning (Qin, 2008). Confucius argued that a populous country was successful if people educated and they trusted their government. That would not be a country with a population problem, but a country with productive human resources. Such a country tends to make an excellent market where the population is large, skilled and with sufficient disposable income, it provides a large market for the consumption of services and goods.
Confucius believes that the government must benefit all people and not only the representatives involved (Qin, 2008). When considering the themes of virtue and individuality, Confucius wanted a social order based on personal ethics where political is the result of personal. It means that if people are kind and virtues, then the state can be so. If harmony is present in the state, it should start with people. Confucius also considered how people can contribute to the government. According to Confucius, it is possible to contribute through personal contribution through actions (Angle, 2012). Confucius stated that it is necessary to be dutiful towards parents and friendly towards brothers and through that, one will be contributing to the government.
When running the state, Confucius believed in the importance of virtue. According to Confucius, the true king should be able to lead the state politically and virtuously. In doing so, the kind can convert the populace of the state, so that everyone behaves harmoniously and virtuously (Tamaki, 2007). Thus, so as to have a proper state, there is a need to have virtuous leaders. The virtuous and wise leaders are better equipped to run a state that a person simply born into power.
Confucius is against the use of force in politics in both international and domestic. In the Analects, Confucius asked how you can govern by killing (Tamaki, 2007). Confucius understood that the leaders of countries and noble houses do not worry about having few people; they worry about the equitable rule. They do not worry about the people who live in poverty but worry about the people living in piece. In this case, if the rule is equitable, there will be no poverty, and when there is harmony there is no lack of people and there is peace. Confucius stated that a policy of the benevolent government that emphasize on equitable rule and peace made war unnecessary. He emphasized on generosity in the government and condemned meanness. Confucius stated that a government without the indulgent generosity is an indication of political degeneration (Tamaki, 2007). There is no need of killing so as to secure order. However, when one is honest, people will follow. The benevolent leadership is similar to the will, and the populace is like the grass where the grass will follow the wind. Confucius claims that if we follow the rule, the world will accept ren. About international relation, Confucius supported the need of treating others as a valuable guest. When one want to compel the public to action, they must convince them of their policies and not to force others to do what you would not like to do.
Confucius also considered the importance of sincerity as an essential condition for constructing a viable political community. So as to minimize conflicts, Confucius emphasized the need for benevolent behavior towards each other.
The teachings of Confucius tend to have a lasting and bearing impact on political, social, and value systems. Confucius did view the world as an organic whole and all the modalities of beings in it as being governed and interconnected by a unifying force, which is the way. In this paper, I provided an understanding of Confucius moral theory and his practices relating to law, political economy, and international relations.
Angle, S (2012). Contemporary Confucian political philosophy. Polity Press
Foss, K & Littlejohn, S (2009). Encyclopedia of communication theory. Sage Publication
Ni, P & Li, C (2014). Moral cultivation and Confucian character. Suny Press
Qin, G (2008). The Thinking Way of Confucianism and Rule of Law. Journal of Politics and Law 1(1)
Tamaki, T (2007). Confusing Confucius in Asian Values? A Constructivist Critique. International Relations 21
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