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Proposed Solar Powered Trains

By Author: Sherry Roberts
Total Articles: 580

Executive Summary
Transportation industry is a key sector in the growth and sustaining of a nation’s economy. Almost all the other sectors are dependent on the transportation infrastructure for development. The rail transport plays a key role in enhancing transport in a country as it ensures not only the transportation of bulky goods but also transport of people. There have been numerous developments in the rail industry since the use of steam engines ranging from diesel powered engines to electric trains. However, there have been emerging challenges in the use of petroleum and other energy liquids such as the uncertainty of the future of fossil fuels, global warming and climate change, high fuel prices and droughts affecting hydroelectric. In the effort to address this challenges this business case project seeks to examine the feasibility and cost-benefit of using solar powered trains.
This business project focuses on the installation and use of solar power energy in the transport sector, specifically in running trains rather than using the electricity in the national grid. The project objectives are to reduce the cost of travelling significantly by about 30 percent, to reduce the consumption of diesel to run trains by up to 90, 000 litres per year, and to reduce environmental pollution by lowering the carbon dioxide emission by up to 200 tonnes. The project aims at lowering the costs of electricity hence reducing the travelling costs and also contributing majorly in the mitigation of climate change and global warming. A cost-benefit analysis gets undertaken to determine the feasibility and financial worthwhile of the project. The main objective of cost-benefit analysis is to explore both the benefits and costs so as to establish which outweighs the other. In the event that costs outweigh the benefits, the business project gets viewed as not cost-beneficial, and in the case where the benefits outweighs the costs, the project gets viewed as profitable and should get implemented. The project intends to gather information by presenting a questionnaire survey on the stakeholders that will get affected by the project in one way or another and also interviewing a transport consultant. A risk assessment and analysis gets undertaken so as to assist the decision-makers and all the stakeholders in making informed and appropriate decisions in regard to the project. An implementation strategy that involves the key milestones in the implementation of the project, implementation work plan, costs, personnel, deliverables and target dates, as well as the risk mitigations get considered in the project. The recommendations of the business case get made after the overall assessment of the impacts, risks and the feasibility of the project. The business case concludes by acquiring a decision on whether the project gets approved and under what conditions, or is not approved.


1) BUSINESS NEED AND CURRENT SITUATION
The modern world, world economy and many operations rely majorly on electricity. This aspect is due to the numerous processes, functions and operations that get supported by electricity. They are found in almost all sectors ranging from institutions, organizations, industries, transport, banking, business, communication, agriculture, and many others. The production and distribution of electricity has been around for a number of centuries, and has significantly evolved and changed more and more depending on cost, environmental impact, availability and individual preference. The availability of electricity has greatly increased in the last century due to establishment of different forms of energy to satisfy the growing demand. However with the increasing demand majorly due to population increase and the evolving information technologies, the energy prices continually rise and the availability of electricity is rapidly diminishing (Foster et. al. 2010).
This challenge has also extended to affect the transport sector which is one of the major sectors in a nation’s economy. The current state of running electric trains using non-renewable energy primarily hydroelectric power is not only expensive but also not environmentally friendly. There have been numerous calls around the globe for adoption of renewable sources of energy so as to mitigate on the impact of climate change and global warning. This aspect has being on the forefront in considering renewable energy as a source of supply of power in running trains. Renewable energy provide other numerous benefits such as low costs, natural supply hence is minimally affected by climate changes such as drought, as well as readily available.
Trains in the present day use either hydro electricity or fossil fuels such as diesel to run engines. These two sources of energy have several constraints. For instance, Bankunda (2015) states that powering trains using hydro electricity is very expensive, therefore solar powered trains will make travelling extremely cheap. Fossil fuels on the other hand are high polluters of the environment, hence contributing to global warming and climate change. Thus, solar energy will not only meet the electricity requirements in moving trains but also reduce the diesel consumption as well as the carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere.
The uncertainty of the future of petroleum and other liquid fuels is also a worrying aspect in the future of services, operations and processes that highly depend on fossil fuels. Industrial and transportation sectors are the largest sectors that are highly dependent on petroleum. The demand is also significantly rising, and the use continually rises despite other sources of energy or challenges such as rising petroleum prices. Energy Information Administration (U S) (2013), states that the worlds liquids consumption specifically on the transportation industry grows by approximately 1.1 percent every year from 2010. It is estimated that it will reach up to 63 percent total net increment by the year 2040. Due to this overdependence and other factors such as conflicts in the Middle East, there is need to invest in other alternative sources of energy.
There has also being several legislation and policy changes in preference of renewable sources of energy to promote sustainability and energy efficiency. For example a European Commission came up with a renewable energy road map in 2007 to increase market shares of renewable energy. The road map provided several policies and legal measures to achieve its objectives that proposed a legal binding 20 percent commitment by 2020 basing on various comprehensive and long-term mandatory targets. The proposals include:
i. Legal provisions that eliminate certain barriers to the incorporation of renewable energy sources in the European Union system
ii. Measures for evaluating member state support systems for renewable energy while aiming toward harmonizing schemes for renewable in the European Union internal electricity market
iii. Regulations that focus on eliminating barriers aiming towards growth in the utilization of renewable energies in the heating and cooling systems
iv. Provision of support for a proposal for a particular incentive or support system for biofuels
v. Development of plans for enhancing renewable energy sources in public procurement domain
vi. The development of plans for enhancing the exchange of appropriate and suitable practices on renewable energy sources
vii. The development of measures whose aim is internalizing the external costs of conventional fossil fuel energy (Carlarne, 2010)
The culmination of the renewable energy roadmap in 2007 was the adoption of the renewable energy directive 2009. The new directive promoted the utilization of energy from renewable sources with mandate that the market share of renewable energy be at 20 percent by the year 2020. The directive 2009/28/EC was the legal cornerstone of the European Union efforts towards renewable sources of energy. The directive defined individual targets for the proportion required of renewable energy in European Union member states’ final energy consumption. These binding individual targets for the nations varied widely across the European Union, although the altogether the targets total to 20 percent objective by the year 2020. The directive also stated that every European Union state must ensure a 10 percent renewable share in their entire domestic transport sectors.
2) BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Transportation industry is a key sector in the growth and sustaining of a nation’s economy not only in the developed but also in developing nations (Black, 2003). The economic infrastructure of a country’s economy that consists of transport network, fuel and energy, ports and harbors, and technology is core in the determination of the trend and pace of the nation’s growth and development. Almost all the other sectors are dependent on the transportation infrastructure for development. The rail transport plays a key role in enhancing transport in a country as it ensures not only the transportation of bulky goods but also transport of people. The project proposes to use solar panels to generate power to run trains instead of using petroleum fuels.
Solar energy refers to the radiant energy that gets produced by the sun. Solar energy has got harnessed since the 7th century, when persons used simple magnifying glasses so as to concentrate the light of the sun into beams that became so ho t that they generated fire in firewood. It however gained interest in the late 1970’s when the world noticed that there were possibilities of oil shortages. Solar energy gets used for many purposes that include generating electricity and heating buildings and water. Electricity generation through solar energy gets attained through two primary processes that are solar thermal and solar-photovoltaic (Enteria & Akbarzadeh, 2013). Solar thermal power plants use concentrating solar collectors so as to generate extremely high temperatures by focusing solar energy so that it produces steam for power plants. On the other hand solar-photovoltaic power plants use semiconductor materials so that it converts radiant energy photons to electrons so that it generates electricity.
2.1) Photovoltaic cells
Photovoltaic cells or PV cells or solar cells generate electricity using solar energy. Some appliances that use photovoltaic cells include solar-powered calculators, telephone call boxes as well as toys. The present day photovoltaic cells convert approximately 10 to 20 percent of radiant energy into electricity.
How a photovoltaic cell works
Photovoltaic cells get made using a slab or wafer of pure silicon. The top of the slab get very thinly diffused with an “n” dopant that may include phosphorus. At the slab base, a small amount of a “p” dopant that is typically boron gets diffused. Dopants have similar atomic structure compared to the primary material in use. The phosphorus contains one more electron in its outer level than silicon, whereas the boron has one less electron. The phosphorus gives the wafer of silicon an excess of free electrons; thus has a negative property referred to as n-type silicon. The n-type silicon is usually not charged meaning it contains an equal number of electrons and protons, although a few of the electrons do not get held tightly to the atoms, but are free to move within the layer. The boron on the other hand has a positive property hence free to attract electrons. At the point where the p-type and n-type silicon meet, free electrons form the n-type silicon flow into the p-type silicon for a split second, before a barrir gets formed to prevent flow of more electrons. The point where the n-type and p-type meet gets referred to as p-n junction. When both sides of the silicon slab get doped, a negative charge in the p-type section of the junction and a positive charge in the n-type section of the junction get formed. This imbalance that result at that point produces an electric field between the n-type and p-type. When the photovoltaic cell gets placed in the sun, photons of light strike the electrons in the p-n junction and energize them, hence knocking the free electrons of their atoms in the event. The electrons then get attracted to the positive charge in the n-type silicon and also get repelled by the negative charge in the p-type silicon. A conducting wire joins the p-type silicon to an electrical application that includes a battery and then back to the n-type silicon, hence forming a complete circuit. The free electrons get pushed into the n-type silicon; however repel each other because they all are of like charge. The wire therefore provides a path for the electrons to flow away from each other. The flow of electrons in an electric current becomes able to power a load as it travels through the circuit from the n-type silicon to the p-type silicon.
3) PROJECT OVERVIEW
3.1) PROJECT OBJECTIVES
The project aims to reduce the cost of travelling significantly by about 30 percent
The project aims to reduce the consumption of diesel to run trains by up to 90, 000 litres per year
The project also aims at reducing environmental pollution by lowering the carbon dioxide emission by up to 200 tonnes
3.2) SCOPE AND OUT OF SCOPE
The business case project looks at the main policies and legislations that govern renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mandates. It also looks at the cost-benefit analysis of solar powered trains to ascertain on the feasibility of such a business case. The study includes data of the current travel costs, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere and the litres of diesel consumed in running trains. The project does not include the exact amount of energy that will get produced considering the train in motion, or when in different locations that have varying solar intensity.
3.3) DELIVERABLES
The project will get implemented with a period of fifteen years, with an expected life span of 100 years. Considering the increasing population and trade, the cost of traveling and transporting goods from one location will significantly reduce. It is estimated with the lowering of diesel consumption by over 90, 000 litres a year the travelling costs may go down by up to 30 percent. Solar panels also require little maintenance hence low operation costs that lead to low transport costs.
3.4 STAKEHOLDERS
The business project shall involve many stakeholders that include the government, financial partners and sponsors, contractors, the general public, railway personnel and project team, suppliers, private sector, and bordering nations.
Stakeholders OVERVIEW OF BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS
Primary Internal
Government The government is responsible for approval of the project, approval of regulations affecting the project and supervision
Primary External
Partners and project sponsors These agencies should provide capital for project implementation
Secondary Internal
the general public The general public shall benefit tremendously form the completion of the project
Railway company personnel Trainings will get done to familiarize members with the new technology
Secondary external
Bordering nations Trade will get boosted by the completion of the project.
4) METHODOLOGY
The project uses a questionnaire survey on the stakeholders that will get affected by the project in one way or another and also interviewing a transport consultant regarding the project so as to gather adequate information regarding the project. The survey will get presented on randomly selected stakeholders so as to get their opinion regarding the business case. The survey questions get presented in appendix A of this project, whereas the interview questions to the consultant get presented in the appendix B. The survey technique gets used so as to conduct a needs determination of the project, gather opinions, provide information, as well as gather information about the current rail system. The objectives of using interview is so as to gather information about the current operations, costs and challenges in the current rail transport, uncover problems in the proposed project, and verify on previously acquired information.
5. RESOURCES
Fossil Fuels have for a long time being the largest world supply of energy. Scholars have identified that liquid fuels, coal and natural gas will constitute up to three-fourths of the total world energy consumption by the year 2040. Petroleum and other liquid fuels are still the largest sources of energy. However, their share of world marketed energy consumption has declined significantly from about 34 percent in 2010 to an estimate of 28 percent by the year 20240. Petroleum and these other liquids, have tremendous continued to increase in the transportation and industrial sectors, however there is a decline in consumption in electric power sectors as well as transportation. Hydroelectric power around the world accounts for 52 percent of the increase in global renewable electricity that gets generated and distributed. Hydroelectric power is the most predominant source of electricity in most nations.
There are various renewable energy sources that provide similar benefits as solar power. These sources include wind energy, tidal energy and geothermal energy. However, installation of these sources in such a project would not suitable for maximum production of power, hence the decision to use solar. The method of supply of power would involve the installation of solar cells on the roof of the railcar just like in a solar car. Solar cells would also get installed on the roof of railway station and also around the railway station so as to supplement power in the station.
Photovoltaic generation
The amount of power production of the solar cells per year can get calculated using the rough estimate in rated power [kWh] × 100 hours. Considering all the needed electric powers of approximately 99, 000kWh and assuming it gets supplied by the solar cells, the solar cells that get rated at approximately 90kW will hence get needed. In the case where HIT solar cells (energy conversion efficiency of about 19 percent) get used, the approximate area required is approximately 470 square meters.
6) STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT
Solar energy in the modern world is one of the most significant renewable energy sources that has continuously gained attention in the recent years and solar powered systems have become more prevalent (Khaligh, et. al., 2010). Solar panels absorb the sunlight radiation and convert it to electricity. Solar energy is free and clean of carbon dioxide emissions and other pollutants, hence great for the environment as it has no harmful impact on flora and fauna.
7) ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS
Climate Change and Global Warming
Transport sector majorly gets driven and supported on fossil fuels that include petroleum, coal and gas. The world is gradually shifting and will continue shifting over the next century from the generation of energy from burning fuels that are harmful to the environment to green energy sources. There has been a worldwide cry for a readable account of the vast scope of climate change. The account needed to be accessible to a wide range of readers who were willing to dedicate a modest amount of time to the understanding of science and its implications. Greenhouse gases have been on the increase in the atmosphere since the start of the industrial age. These gases include carbon dioxide which mainly originates from the burning of fossil fuels. These green house gases are responsible for causing warming on earth. They simply, absorb the radiant heat (infrared energy) that gets emitted from the Earth’s surface. The potential consequences of global warming are the significant rise in the sea level, the increase of the incidence of harsh and extended droughts and also the increase of the incidence of extreme weather events (Mathez, 2013).
The uncertainty about the future regarding climate change and global warming has necessitated for the mitigation of the risks. This increase in awareness of global warming, carbon dioxide emissions, air pollution and other factors that degrade the environment has necessitated for action from different quarters ranging from the private sector and the government. This action has led to the gradual shift from burning fossil fuels that degrade the environment to green energy sources that include the sun and wind. Considering transportation industry especially rail transport consumes huge amount of nonrenewable resources such as petroleum and gas, the shift to solar energy would significantly reduce green house gases emissions.
8) MARKET READINESS
The introduction of solar powered trains is not an introduction of a new product that is put directly to the costumer, in this case the person travelling or goods being transported. Solar power will replace the use of electricity to run trains; hence the same customers travelling in the electric or diesel trains will use the solar powered trains. The product will be capable of satisfying the customers as well as lead to various direct benefits such as reduced transport costs. The greatest barrier of introducing such a project is acquiring the initial installation cost that may be quite large to begin with. The current competition available for implementation of such project is the existence of diesel run trains and electric trains. The project greatly requires partners to implement as its initial cost is extremely high. The government may however borrow the remaining amount after funding, and this can get paid over a period of time.
9) ALTERNATIVES (BUSINESS, TECHNICAL AND PROCUREMENT)
The description of business, technical and procurement alternatives is significant in the proposed project. It is plays the role of explaining different alternatives for structuring the project and delivering the service to the decision-makers and stakeholders. The solar energy is more advantages than any other renewable source of energy that include wind, tidal, biogas and geothermal.
10) BUSINESS AND OPERATIONAL IMPACTS
The project will affect the general public in many various ways. These include a reduction of cost of travelling hence encourage more travelling and trade. The project will also provide an employment opportunity to many individual during implementation and upon completion. It may however, result in reduction of personnel due to introduction of a new technology hence the current will not get needed. The business and operation of solar powered train will boost the economy of the country significantly and it will also comply with the international requirement to incorporate renewable energy into its sectors. Increased borrowing to finance the project will increase the government debt.
11) RISK ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS
Risk assessment of the project gets undertaken so as to assist the decision-makers and all the stakeholders in making informed and appropriate decisions in regard to the project. Through the consideration of the risks and uncertainties in the planning process assists the project owners to mitigate but not eliminate the risks involved. Some of the risks that are involved in this project include the use of new and unfamiliar technology to the project team, tight deadlines, lack of a proper management model, poorly defined requirements, and poor solution architecture direction. The probability of the risks is provided in the table below with the assumed impact which estimates the project’s monetary value as affected by the particular risk. The probability signifies the likelihood of occurrence of the risks. The expected value is result of multiplication of the probability of the happening of the risk and the impact.
Risks Probability (percent) Assumed Impact (dollars) Expected value of Risk
Regulatory risks 40 22. 6 million 10. 4 million
Human behavior including lack of proper management 40 34. 2 million 12. 6 million
Supplier failures 15 14. 1 million 8.7 million
Maintenance 25 16.1 million 8. 0 million
Weather effects/ delays 30 30. 4 million 16. 5 million
Delays due to unfamiliar technology 30 22. 3 million 11. 3 million
Total cost 139.5 million 67.5 million

Regulatory risks are the kind of risks that relate to the method of financing approach that get employed, political agendas that could affect the installation priorities and the expiration of tax breaks and subsidies that may lead to higher costs. There is a wide range of subsidies and financial opportunities in solar energy. Human behavior risks entail of the difficulties presented at all levels that relate to the furthering of the execution of the project such as adversity to change, personal agendas as well as the contentment with the status quo. In supplier failure, solar energy has numerous and competitive suppliers that provide various sizes and models of arrays that use the economies of scale. Solar energy is only most effective on sunny days.
12) FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS INCLUDING COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS WITH BREAKEVEN POINT
The switch to an alternative energy is increasing investment in the modern society. There only exists a few conversion methods, and solar gets considered as the largest one. This switch gets seen due to harmful emissions that affect the environment that get generated by the machinery in use in various sectors, thus, the installation of solar panels gets termed as an example of financial investment. Financial investments sometimes look vastly different depending on the industry they get invested. Whatever the size of the investment it may likely impact the organization or an individual in a drastic way, hence each financial decision should be thoughtfully and analyzed that can get done through a cost-benefit analysis. Capital budgeting or investment analysis is a perfect example of cost-benefit analysis. This particular process of cost-benefit analysis comprises of four phases namely; a) project definition and estimation of cash flows b) project analysis and selection c) project implementation; and lastly d) project review (Gitman and Forrester Jr., 1977).
The main objective of the cost-benefit analysis is to explore both the benefits and costs so as to establish which outweighs the other. If costs outweigh the benefits, the business project gets viewed as not cost-beneficial, and in the case where the benefits outweigh the costs, the project gets viewed as profitable and should get implemented. If a business case does not seem desirable on paper, the project is not an ideal investment. The identification of benefits and costs that will get involved in the analysis is the initial activity that should get implemented. No cost or benefit should get ignored as they are all essential in the cost-benefit analysis process. There are three important ratios the must get calculated at the end of the analysis so as to establish whether the project is going to be profitable. These ratios are the net present value (NPV) whose value should be greater than zero, the internal rate of return whose value should exceed the initial discount rate, and the cost-beneficial calculation whose value should be positive. The net present value of the benefits and costs must get calculated first. When the lifespan of the project gets identified, the calculation of the NPV is now possible using an appropriate discount rate. The NPV equals the entire present values less the cash outlay needed at i equals zero (in this case the initial investment in the solar panels). The internal rate of return (IRR) gets the annualized rate of return, and it equates the present day values of benefits and costs. The cost-beneficial calculation gets established through subtraction of the benefits from the costs. All these calculations get undertaken as methods of measuring the profitability of the project and determine whether the project should get pursued or not.
13) IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
The project shall get implemented in four phases that shall see a complete transformation of the entire railway network into the solar powered system in a time frame of fifteen years. The first stage shall involve the rolling out of a prototype train that shall get used to identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the project, as well as identify other areas factors not considered in planning. The second phase shall involve the purchase of six new trains as well as the renovation of another 15 trains. All of these trains shall then get fitted with solar panels in the rooftops and within a period of three years shall be ready. The third phase shall involve installation of solar panels in the rooftops of the current trains as the trains in the second phase shall get used to transport people and goods. This phase is estimated to take approximately four years. The last phase shall involve the installation of solar panels in all the railway stations and is approximately going to take up to four years. The entire project is estimated to cost about 2.6 billion dollars. The project shall involve staff with different expertise to undertake different roles. This personnel include renewable energy engineers and expert who shall be responsible for design, installation, supervision, consultation, and implementation of the project so as to ensure efficient production of maximum power. Other personnel shall include structural engineers, safety officers, IT experts, unskilled personnel, and many others. A chief executive officer shall get appointed to oversee the implementation of the entire project, and shall get assisted by several directors with expertise in different sectors such as project management, safety, finance, and administration.
14) CONTRACT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES AND TOOLS (OPTIONAL)
Before the award of contract the project solution, project plan, as well as funding for the project should already have got finalized. There are however other steps that should take place before the award of a contract, namely the project plan approval, funding plan approval and the review and approval of the proposed contract. The project plan approval also the feasibility study report is essential in ensuring the compliance to governing laws and regulations. The funding plan approval is essential to the success of a project on time as it ensures that future payments by agencies, organizations and sponsors get obtained. The review and approval of the proposed contract involve the terms and conditions that must get reviewed and approved. The purpose of this aspect is ensuring consistency with the governing laws as well as guidelines, and also ensuring that there is the inclusion of sufficient protection of the country.
15) PROJECT REVIEW AND APPROVAL PROCESS
The business project requires reviewing and approval process of the milestones undertaken so as to keep the project on track. The entire project shall be under the supervision of the national government and the House committee on transportation. The house committee shall give approval of the milestones.
16) RECOMMENDATIONS
The switch from hydroelectric power and use of fossil fuels to alternative energy sources has become common in the present day society, and especially through solar energy. The purpose of this business case and the project was to establish if the installation of solar power to run trains was going to prove cost-beneficial or detrimental. According to the results, it is recommended that the state should invest in solar powered trains to reduce cost of transportation and cost of energy, and also, contribute to mitigating the impact of climate change and global warming. The project will produce majorly long-term benefits that will boost the economy of the country.
17) BUSINESS CASE SIGNOFF
The national government and the House committees on energy and transport have cordially approved the project; however, the implementation period has got reduced to a period of twelve years. The challenges facing renewable energy can get mitigated through adequate planning and proper assessment of the renewable energy sector outlooks before the start of the project. This planning and assessment include all the costs that shall get involved.

References
Bankunda, H. M. 2015 Solar Energy Tomorrow: Booktango
Black, W. R. 2003 Transportation: A Geographical Analysis: Guilford Press p. 256 -257
Carlarne, C. P. 2010 Climate Change Law and Policy: EU and US Approaches: Oxford University Press
Energy Information Administration (U S) 2013 International Energy Outlook 2013 with Projections to 2040: Government Printing Office p. 8 – 11
Enteria, N. & Akbarzadeh, A. 2013 Solar Energy Sciences and Engineering Applications A Balkema Book: CRC Press p. 4
Foster, Robert, Majid Ghassemi, and Alma Cota. 2010. Solar Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment. Florida: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 233-248.
Gitman, Lawrence J., and John R. Forrester, Jr. 1977. “A Survey of Capital Budgeting Techniques Used by Major U.S. Firms.” Financial Management: 6:3(Autumn): 66-71.
Khaligh, Alireza, and Omer C. Onar. 2010. Energy Harvesting: Solar, Wind, & Ocean Energy Conversion Systems. Florida: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, pp. 1-5.
Mathez, E. A. 2013 Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future: Columbia University Press P. 1 - 31

Appendix A
Elicitation 1: Survey/Questionnaire
Q1) Have you travelled by train in the past three years from the date of the survey? The travels that got made by a suburban train, or to and from the airport or within the city limit may get included.
YES ……………………………………………………….
NO ……………………………………………………….
Q2) How often do you travel by train?
5 – 7 days of the week ……………………………………………………….
2 – 4 days of the week ……………………………………………………….
Less that two days a week ……………………………………………………….
Never ……………………………………………………….
Q3) What is the most frequent purpose of your rail trip?
Traveling to work/University/School ……………………………………………………….
Business trips (includes transportation of goods) ……………………………………………………….
Leisure/Tourism ……………………………………………………….
Other ……………………………………………………….
Never travels by train ……………………………………………………….
Q4) How would you term the current travel costs by the current rail system?
Very expensive ……………………………………………………….
Average ……………………………………………………….
Very low ……………………………………………………….
I don’t know ………………………………………………………..
Q5) Do you think the type of power that runs the train [either diesel run engines or electric trains] affect the travel costs?
Yes ………………………………………………………. Why…………………………………………………………………………………………………
No ………………………………………………………. Why…………………………………………………………………………………………………
I don’t know ……………………………………………………….
Q6) Do you think the use of solar powered trains would bring down the travel costs for the rail system
Yes ……………………………………………………….
No ……………………………………………………….
Q7) Does rail transport especially diesel engine trains contribute to climate change and global warming?
Yes ……………………………………………………….
No ……………………………………………………….
I don’t know ……………………………………………………….
Q8) Do you agree that the proposed solar-powered train project should get approved?
Strongly agree ……………………………………………………….
Agree ……………………………………………………….
Do not Agree ……………………………………………………….
I don’t Know ……………………………………………………….
Appendix B
Elicitation 2: Interview
Q1) Are the cost savings in transport industry a renewable energy portfolio?
Q2) Can an innovation of solar powered trains aiming at renewable energy sustainability get attained, and will it achieve the country’s long-term energy efficiency goal?
Q3) Is the renewable energy sector on a sustainable economic development or is the industry only expected to thrive just for a short period?
Q4) Would the implementation of proposed solar powered trains have more short-term and long-term benefits that disadvantages concerning travel costs, global warming and any other factors that get affected?
Q5) What are the financing approaches that the government can pursue to finance the solar powered trains’ project?

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at Melda Research in research paper writing help 24 hours if you need a similar paper you can place your order for a custom research paper from research proposal writing services.

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