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A raw score is an untransformed data obtained from a measurement. To understand the world around, individuals often obtain data before quantifying it. However, unaltered numbers may not necessarily mean anything. Relying on counting alone only provides raw scores that require further conversions to mean anything. Thus, raw scores are the forms of unaltered measurements. In the case of a test, raw scores represent the number of questions answered correctly by a student. An example of raw score includes original data obtained by a student in a particular test.
The raw score is the individual’s actual achievement before any adjustments for relative position in a test group. The test scores must be converted to a percentile rank or standard score in order to make sense of the data. The conversion to standardized tests is done for interpretive and comparative reasons (Das & Das, 1980).
A student’s test in a score may be considered to illustrate why raw scores have little meaning. For example, a student may have obtained a raw score of 50. The raw score has no meaning as a score of 50 would be a superior score if the test consisted of 55 questions. However, it would be a below average score if the test consisted of 120 questions. In psychological tests, raw scores are converted to age scores, percentile scores, ratio IQ and standard scores. Their variations include T scores, Z scores, C scores, deviation IQ, and stanines. The raw score requires transformation for ensuring additivity of treatment effect as well as ensuring that data is normally distributed. The transformation fulfills the assumptions presented by statistical tests. The transformation may be done through linear or nonlinear techniques. Linear transformation does not alter the original properties and shapes. Nonlinear transformation alters the kurtosis and skewness of original raw scores (Das & Das, 1980).
Das, D., & Das, A. (1980). Statistics in Psychology. Academic Publishers.
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