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What Changes Have Occurred In Plant Breeding Techniques Over Centuries?
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Difference Between Genetic Engineering and Traditional Plant Breeding
Genetic Engineering was introduced in year 1996. It was found that Genetic Engineering is fundamentally different from traditional plant breeding. The difference between Genetic Engineering and other crop improvement methods was on account of the fact that in Genetic Engineering, transfer of genetic material occurs from one creature into completely different creature such as DNA from microorganisms into corn. This is something that can't be found in traditional techniques.
• Simple Selection
Conventionally, farmers kept seeds from trees and plants having good traits like better flavour or high yield for replanting. Doing it this way, farmers were able to create new crop strains. Farmers of some other regions also adopted the same technique and got benefitted from new and better strains, which were of course as per their needs. Nowadays, breeder services are very popular; you can also take assistance from a professional plant breeder in this matter.
After simple selection, cross-pollination was the next development. This technique includes deliberate transfer of a flower's pollen from one particular plant to flower's stigma of another plant. For cross-pollination, both the plants were closely related.
Successful pollination leads to viable seeds. When a seed starts growing, one or more offspring plants exhibit beneficial traits. The process of cross-pollination is conscientious since trait inheritance becomes difficult in some cases, which means that there're chances of getting an offspring either having one, none or both traits.
It is prerequisite of cross-pollination that parent plants are compatible. Both plants can be either of same species or closely related species. Cross-pollination is still one of the popular breeding techniques and is highly used by farmers in different regions. However, it is important that before you start using this technique, you reach out to plant breeding expert, for advice. Nowadays, plant breeding services are getting very popular and its better that you take assistance from a plant breeder Norfolk in this matter.
Sometimes, cross-pollination can give haphazard results, therefore plant breeders took steps to search for better techniques so that consistent results can be achieved. This lead to introduction of a popular technique, known as hybridization.
Under this technique, two uncontaminated plant strains are created by repetitively inbreeding plants. This process is undertaken till a stable strain is achieved. After that, breeders cross-pollinate parent plants to get seeds which can grow into separate plants having predictable characteristics known as F1 hybrids. In this technique, one major drawback is that the seeds of F1 hybrids can't produce offspring having traits similar to their parents. This is the reason why gardeners don't save seeds from hybrid plants.
Just like conventional cross-pollination technique, formation of F1 hybrid in this method is limited to few compatible plants. In most of the cases, those plants are closely related or same species. It is better that before adopting this method, you take consultation from plant breeding Norfolk services.
• Natural Mutations
This technique is also popular to create unique and new plants. When there occurs a natural disruption in normal inheritance process, possibly an "error" in the replication of DNA, the offspring may exhibit different characteristics.
In case, the mutation possesses some advantage which makes a plant able to survive, there are chances that the trait passes down to future generations. On few occasions, these mutations give traits which are desirable as per plant breeders.
• Induced Mutations
After observing the behaviour of mutations, some plant breeders started to try induced mutations. Under this method, chemicals and irradiations are tried believing that they would eventually lurch upon mutations which will result in better changes.
It was also discovered by the breeders that plants grown with tissue culture (under this method, a plant tissue is cultured using synthetic nutrients under sterile conditions) have more chances to mutate as compared to the plants which are grown using conventional methods.
In case you're looking for professional plant breeding services , your search ends at Gooderham Horticulture Ltd. They have around 30 years of experience into this industry and can give you professional assistance. For more details, reach them at Unit 3 The Old Barn Annexe, Diss Business Centre, Dark Lane, Diss, Norfolk, IP21 4HD, UK.
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