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Mental Retardation: Symptoms, Causes, And Stem Cell Therapy

By Author: Nupur Jha
Total Articles: 43

Mental Retardation is also known by the name intellectual disability. This Neuro-development disorder is characterized by adaptive functioning, a below 70 IQ, and impaired intellectual functionality. This disorder affects the daily life of those affected by it. Apart from cognition, the disease also affects the functional skills.

 

Symptoms

 

Adverse behavioral changes are the symptoms of the intellectual disability. Children who are affected by this disease learn to walk, sit, and crawl much later as compared to others. Some also have issue of delayed speech development.

 

Other symptoms of mental retardation includes:

 

1. Memory skill deficits

 

2. Oral language improvement and development delay

 

3. Deficits related to learning of social skills

 

4. Impaired problem-solving skills and functionality

 

5. Delay in learning of the different adaptive behaviors (including self-care and self-help skills)

 

6. Repetitive learning

 

Causes

 

This disease may occur due to both genetic and environmental issues.

 

Genetic causes:

 

The transfer of abnormal genes from parents to the fetus, errors in the genetic combinations, and other genetic abnormalities may cause this condition. Some of the most common genetic conditions associated with the disease include Klinefelter’s Syndrome, Down syndrome, Williams’s syndrome, Neurofibromatosis, and others.

 

Problems affecting the fetus during pregnancy:

 

When the fetus fails to develop normally, it may be affected by intellectual disability. For instance, Hypoxia, or inadequate oxygen supply may cause the disease (as brain damage may follow).

 

Diseases and Toxins:

 

Meningitis, whooping cough, and measles, among other diseases, may cause mental retardation. Lead or mercury poisoning may also cause the disease.

 

Deficiencies:

 

Deficiency of Iodine may cause the condition. Malnutrition is also a known cause of mental retardation.

 

Stem Cell Treatment in India for Mental Retardation

 

The pharmaceutical, surgical and rehabilitative measures that were used for treating mental retardation did not cure the root cause of the disease. The treatment reached a stagnant stage after a certain time period. Stem cell therapy (as provided by NeuroGen Brain and Spine Institute, Mumbai) stimulates the neural framework and nervous system of the body. Autologous (derived from the body of the patient itself) stem cells are used to treat the condition.

 

Stem cells generate their therapeutic effects through:

 

Self-renewal:

 

Stem cells self-renew and multiply endlessly to fill the depleting pool of healthy neural cells, in the body of the patient.

 

Differentiation:

 

Stem cells differentiate to assume the specialized functions of the neural cells. They form the oligodendrocytes, glial cells, and other cells that form the core of the nervous system. These cells can undertake the normal functions of the nervous system with ease and efficiency.

 

Stem cells also alter the macro and micro cellular environments, once transplanted into the human body. They have the unique paracrine functions, they help in repairing damaged neural cell modulation of the immune system, secretion of a number of Trophic and growth factors, secretion of the VEGF or the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, regulation of cell death, formation of new blood vessels, reduction of inflammation within the cells, and activation of the neighbouring stem cells of the body. Hence mental retardation treatment through stem cells has unmatched benefits.

 

Benefits

 

Stem cell therapy addresses the root cause of intellectual disability, in many subtle and profound ways. Patients who receive stem cell therapy show marked improvements in areas including cognition, communication, social interaction, self-care, toilet training, and other areas of life. They have better school skills, and also have their learning activity enhanced post stem cell therapy. An improvement in IQ is also noticed, which is so crucial in improving the intellectual ability of the children. Stem cell therapy also improves on the neural damage. Radiographical findings have shown the repairs.

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