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The Technical Terms In Motion Capture
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A) Pre - Production
Scene: A scene or script could be a numbered a part of a movie script, which can be softened into elements in photo, medium-shot, close-up, etc by the director once shooting. A master scene could be a fairly long length of the script, all beneath one variety, that the director will definitely break down later. He or she might, however, take the complete of a master scene 1st, then shoot closeups of the varied characters to chop in with this later. In animation the essential unit of continuous action, typically shot on one background, from that a movie is made up.
Script: The elaborate scene-by-scene directions for a movie or tv production, together with description of setting and action with dialogue and camera directions. once the script conjointly has full details of visuals it's termed a 'storyboard'.
Storyboard: A sort of script common for animated films for several years and currently typically used for commercials, even live-action ones. It consists of a series of sketches showing key positions for each scene, with dialogue and descriptive notes below. Still employed in animation.
2D Animation: The creation of moving photos in a very two-dimensional setting, like through "traditional" cel animation or in computerised animation computer code. this is often done by sequencing consecutive pictures, or "frames", that simulate motion by every image showing ensuing in a very gradual progression of steps. the attention may be "fooled" into perceiving motion once these consecutive pictures ar shown at a rate of twenty four frames per second or quicker. 3D
The creation of moving photos in a very three-dimensional digital setting. this is often done by sequencing consecutive pictures, or "frames", that simulate motion by every image showing ensuing in a very gradual progression of steps, recorded by a virtual "camera" then output to video by a rendering engine. the attention may be "fooled" into perceiving motion once these consecutive pictures ar shown at a rate of twenty four frames per second or quicker.
Character Associate in Nursingimation: The art of creating an animated figure move sort of a distinctive individual; typically represented as acting through drawings. The animator should "understand however the character's temperament and body part are mirrored in its movements.
Character model: A sheet of drawings process the proportions, shape, wear etc. of a personality for the steerage of animators.
Computer animation: The technique of victimization computers to come up with moving photos. Some systems are able to do this in period of time (25 frames per second-or within the USA 30fps), however the bulk of animation is made one frame at a time then altered into a continual sequence. terribly subtle programs ar needed to perform the tasks of movement, fairing, perspective, hidden-surface removal, colouring, shading and illumination, and because the trend will increase towards a lot of realistic pictures, quicker computers ar required to method the immeasurable computations needed for every frame. The term "computer animation" covers a broad vary of subjects, however overall may be outlined because the creation of moving pictures through the employment of computers. These pictures may be created in either a two-dimensional or three-dimensional area, and may be applied to internet style, computer programme style, application development, video games, movies, lighting tricks, cartooning, and plenty of others.
Computer graphics: Charts, diagrams, drawings and different pictorial representations that ar laptop generated.
Effects animation: The animation of non-character movements like rain, smoke, lightning, water, etc.
Go-Motion: just like 'Stop-Motion', however the animation is created by rods connected to the pupet/creature, which might be programmed by a laptop to perform the desired movement. The advantage over stop-motion is that lots a lot of realistic movement may be created, as a result of the puppet/creature blurs slightly between every frame. The disadvantage is that the rods connected to the creature ought to be hidden from read (e.g. victimization the blue-screen process)
In Between: The paper drawing of a figure that lies in sequence between 2 key positions drawn by Associate in Nursing animator.
Key frame animation: The animator 'draws' directly onto the cathode-ray tube show and produces a basic image or cell. variety of those drawings will then be superimposed on each other to make a composite cell or key frame. several of those key frames may be created up and keep within the laptop to be referred to as up and used PRN. The action of the film may be created by stringing along the series of key frames, and introducing the required movements between one frame and therefore the next. every key frame may be used over and yet again by merely occupation it repeatedly from the pc score.
Stop-Motion Animation: Moving a lighting tricks puppet or model/creature little|alittle|atiny low} quantity and recording one frame (or small variety of frames) so once the film is compete back at a traditional speed it seems to maneuver. The disadvantage with this kind of animation is that it will typically seem to 'strobe', partially owing to the shortage of blur between the frames.
Three-dimensional modeling: Geometrical descriptions of Associate in Nursing object victimization polygons or solids in 3 dimensions (x,y,z coordinates) for the aim of making the illusion of height, dimension and depth.
C) Post Production
Edit : the method of grouping video clips, audio tracks, graphics and different supply marerial into a respectable package.
Off-Line Edit : A "draft" edit, typically ready in Associate in Nursing off-line edit suite (at a lower cost), then taken to Associate in Nursing on-line facility to form the ultimate cut.
On-Line Edit : the ultimate version of Associate in Nursing edit, ready in a very skilled edit facility.
Non-linear redaction : Associate in Nursing approach to video redaction created doable by digital video recordings. As in data processing, video segments may be inserted between 2 existing segments while not erasing either. not like the approach needed once redaction analog video , segments don't ought to "laid down" within the sequence within which they're going to later be shown.
Off-line redaction : The steps throughout the edit method once a preliminary choice of usable shots and scenes is created, and therefore the tentative sequence of those parts is determined. This method is usually finished lower value, easier redaction instrumentation than is found in a very skilled edit suite (where on-line redaction is done). victimization off-line redaction will considerably scale back the full value of a producation.
2D Cartoon Animation
On-line redaction : The steps throughout the edit method once the compilation of ultimate program is finished. once reasonable, this is often wiped out an expert edit suite with prime quality instrumentation. If off-line redaction had been done, the edit call list from that section guides the on-line edit method, usually minimizing the time and value within the skilled edit suite.
Post Production : The phases of production that occur when the recording, filming, or taping. This includes redaction, mixing, effects, dubbing, compression, mastering, etc.
Render Farm : a gaggle of computers that work along to perform the computation-intensive tasks of 3-D rendering.
D) Motion Capture
Mocap : the method of recording the information from human movement so it may be used for 3D characters created on a laptop. Mocap may be used for 3D animations for film, TV and games, and for lighting tricks work. There ar wireless, magnetic motion capture systems, and optical systems, that track markers connected to the animator.
Performance Capture : The recording of a performance, either human or animal, employing a Motion Capture system (or similar technology) - distinction being that you simply will motion capture a table, however it's cannot provides a performance. lighting tricks Blue (or Green)
Screen : A system that replaces a specified color (blue during this case) with pictures from another supply. this may either be done optically (eg. victimization film) or electronically (eg. in video, conjointly referred to as Chroma-Key in video). Some laptop systems investigate pel within the scene and confirm whether or not to exchange that pel with the opposite video supply. higher laptop systems enable 'some' of the color of the pel from one image and 'some' from another image. the higher systems can be take clear objects (eg. bottles) or smoke and mix these with the photographs from another supply.
Chroma-Key : Keying out elements of a picture that contain a specific color (or colours). Eg. exchange a blue or inexperienced background with pictures from another supply.
Composite : to mix 2 or a lot of individual pictures onto one piece of film by photographic or digital means that. Early compositing was accomplished within the camera by masking a part of the scene once cinematography, rewinding the film and removing the matte and shooting once more to show the antecedently disguised portion. Digital compositing is commonplace, within which multiple film pictures ar scanned into the pc, combined digitally, and output to one piece of film.
Motion management : Controling the motion of a camera or lighting tricks object (eg. model area ship etc), victimization commands from a laptop, so the precise moves may be recurrent as repeatedly. This makes it simple to composite it (ie.combine it with another shot).
Rotoscoping : Drawing around one thing within the frame so a control may be applied thereto a part of the film. If Associate in Nursing animated creature should go behind one thing within the live action piece of film, that object may be drawn around therefore a matte may be created, so the createure won't show over the highest of that object. If the camera is moving, then every frame of film would need to be rotoscoped. If the camera remains, then constant matte will in all probability be used for all frames in this shot. Rotoscoping was 1st employed by the Fleischers for creating cartoons. The Fleischers fictional the Rotoscope, that could be a device for jutting live-action film on to paper frame by frame, so the define can be derived and used as a guide for the animation. The Rotoscope consists of Associate in Nursing animation camera and a light-weight supply (usually employing a prism behind the movement and therefore the lamp house connected to the camera's open door) that comes a print through the camera's optical device and therefore the projected image is then derived to make a matte. The lamp home is then removed and therefore the raw stock placed within the camera and therefore the drawings ar recorded through constant optical device that projected the image. The ensuing image can then match the initial image if the 2 strips of film ar run bi-packed within the same projector movement (using Associate in Nursing optical printer). In digital film effects work, rotoscoping refers to any drawn matte, as each pictures may be seen compisited whereas the matte is being drawn, therefore smart results may be achieved.
2D Character Animation
Virtual Sets : Sets that ar generated (at least partially) from information among a laptop. largely used for TV work, these systems replace the important set (eg. Associate in Nursing empty studio) with a laptop generated set, permitting the actor/presenter to maneuver within the foreground. eg. the background is 'keyed out' and replaced with the set that has been created in a very 3D package (eg. Softimage or 3D Studio Max), and any camera movements are duplicated by the 'virtual camera'. this may need a robust laptop, particularly if it's to be wiped out period of time, for instance a element Graphics machine. the strategy of keeping track of the camera movement (so that it may be duplicated within the 3D laptop set) is completely different for the varied sytems. Some systems use a blue grid painted on the rear wall of a studio of a identified size. A red junction rectifier is projected onto the cameras and therefore the actor/presenter so they can also be half-track throughout the set.
Visual effects (also referred to as optical or photographic effects) : lighting tricks achieved with the help of photographic or digital technology, occurring when the principal photography, or main shooting, of a film. Includes miniatures, optical and digital effects, matte paintings, stop-motion animation, and computer-generated imagination (CGI).
Wire Removal : Removal of unwanted wires, rods, etc. from a bit of film by exchange them with what would are seen if they weren't there (eg. the background). this may be done by exchange them with constant space from another border that the wires/rods weren't visible, or by averaging the colors on either aspect of the wire and exchange it with the common.
E) New Media
A generic term for the various completely different sorts of transmission that ar created doable through the employment of engineering. The term is in regard to "old" media forms, like print newspapers and magazines, that ar static representations of text and graphics. New media includes:
* streaming audio and video
* chat rooms
* on-line communities
* internet advertising
* optical disk and read-only storage media
* computer game environments
* integration of digital information with the phonephone, like net telecommunication
* digital cameras
* mobile computing
Use of the term new media implies that the information communication is going on between desktop and portable computer computers and handhelds , like PDAs , and therefore the media they take information from, like compact discs.
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