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After controlling for education to compare the print engagement of the three geographical groups, a significant difference was found between migrant parents' report of engagement in reading activities and parents living in rural and urban circumstances report of engagement in reading activities, F(2, 34) = 8.02, p = 0.001. Education level was controlled because previous studies have shown that it affects literacy practices (e.g., Kirsch & Guthrie, 1984; Smith, 1996). Tukey's post hoc test revealed that migrant parents (M = 32.94, SD = 3.12) reported to engage in fewer reading activities than did urban parents (M = 49.52, SD = 3.56), and migrant parents also reported to engage in fewer reading activities than did rural parents (M = 48.70, SD = 3.63). Reading essays, newspapers, or magazine stories (u â€” 92%, r = 90%, m â€” 20%); books or stories (u = 67%, r = 64%, m = 27%); and song lyrics (u = 50%, r = 72%, m = 20%) seemed to show the greatest differences. There were no significant differences in writing engagement among the groups, perhaps because of less engagement with writing overall.
There were trends in the frequency of reading and writing activities among the three groups, most notably between migrant and urban parents and migrant and rural parents. For example, advertisements and fliers were reported to be read more daily and weekly with urban and rural parents and more monthly with migrant parents. Urban and rural parents reported to engage in reading periodicals, most frequently horoscopes, on a daily and weekly basis while migrant parents stated that they engage in this activity more on a monthly basis. Reading labels, container print, and signs was generally a daily activity for many urban and rural parents, but again, for migrant adults, this type of reading activity was reported to be engaged in more on a weekly basis. Writing letters or e-mails was a less common writing interaction reported by migrant parents. For migrant parents, limited English language skills of some parents may account for some differences that exist.
Reading bill statements and receipts was a common activity reported overall and was more of a daily activity for urban parents than for rural or migrant parents.. Menu reading was more of a weekly reading activity for urban parents and more of a monthly reading activity for rural parents. Some urban parents engaged in reading address books or dictionaries on a daily basis.Our Coach Replica Bags with detailed imitation, qualified materials and lowest price endow you the same dignity and elegance of the original one. You would love Coach Signature Hamptons Shoulder Bag Tote 10078 in gold at first sight.
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