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Do You Know The News Effect And Meaning
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In this chapter we have examined the complex interaction among the candidates and the media in campaigns. One medium can be used to contextualize the content carried by another; for example, a print reporter may determine the accuracy of charges contained in a broadcast ad. Alternatively, an ad such as the anti-Nixon Watergate ads run by McGovern may take articles published in a print form and employ them in a televised ad.
We also noted the interplay of news and advertising across the various media. Ads become the subject of analysis in news, and items in the news become the content of ads. In the process, the well-financed candidate has the ability to take his or her case directly to the U.S. public in ads, but even as this right is exercised, it is subject to the scrutiny of the news media. Thomas Sabo Necklaces
Finally, we have shown some of the ways in which politicians manipulate the news in their attempts to impose a consistent image of themselves and their campaigns on all media outlets. This chapter illustrates the systemic and commercial character of the U.S. mass media. Political communication includes both news and advertising. As news, political activities are shaped by the criteria for newsworthiness and the conventions of news presentation. In advertising, candidates, like products, must achieve name recognition; differentiate themselves from their competitors; create identification with and participation by target audiences; associate themselves with admired persons, activities, and values; and use repetition to overcome audience resistance.
In political communication, news and advertising interact in an unusually significant way. News coverage can make a candidate credible, reinforce the messages in political ads, and protect the candidate against certain kinds of attacks. As a result, politicians seek to blur distinctions between news and advertising; campaign managers create pseudo-events to attract media coverage; and news footage or news like content and formats are used in political advertising.
Journalists, with their special access to information and their credibility as investigators, evaluate the claims in political ads and serve as a corrective to deceptive and misleading advertising. Conversely, through ads candidates can respond to news coverage and influence the way that audiences react to news items.
National and state political candidates cannot be elected without the credibility conferred by news coverage or without the images created through advertising. As a result, the costs of political campaigning have increased. Political advertising is expensive, as are the services of professionals with the expertise to influence news coverage. In one Ways to Compensate for or to Counter These Limitations
1.Gather information from multiple news sources and multiple media.
2.Determine what issues are relevant to you and seek out forms in which those issues are likely to be addressed.
3.Begin paying attention to news and debates in the early presidential primaries, when news coverage is likely to treat emerging issues in depth.
4.Use computers in libraries or at home to retrieve early news stories of importance in contextualizing candidate claims. Often newspapers carry careful studies of the biography and record of a candidate early in the primaries.
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