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Stereotypes And Individual Differences (1)
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Stereotypes are types of generalization that are useful in organizing the massive amounts of information to which people are exposed. As with any generalization, the formation of stereotypes downplays the behavior of specific individuals and stresses trends across large numbers of people. After many observations of different individuals, people from all over the world are likely to see more aggressive behavior in men, more Cartier Roadster Replica Watches nurturing behavior in women, more assertion of leadership among men, and more passivity among women in mixed-gender groups. These observations become part of the universal stereotypes of men and women. When drawing their conclusions about men and women, observers do not focus on individual differences. They do not focus their attention on the individual aggressive woman or the passive man.
In their studies, Williams and Best found that passivity was part of the stereotype of females in 25 cultures. Other parts of the stereotype were that females were respectful, nurturing, and sociable. In addition to an explanation based on biological differences that lead to responsibilities for childcare, Williams and Best asserted that additional arguments need to be made about the reasons for the stereotype. One argument is that people become comfortable believing that members of each gender either have or can develop the characteristics that are necessary to carry out tasks in a smooth-functioning society. If females are to have a principal responsibility for the care of the young, it is reassuring to believe that they can be--or can become--affectionate, gentle, patient, sympathetic, and so on. If males are to serve as hunters and warriors, it is comforting to believe that they can be--or can become--adventurous, aggressive, courageous, energetic, independent, self-confident, and the like. It may be in this context, the "justification of necessity" with regard to different social roles that many of the gender-trait stereotypes originated. Once established, the beliefs concerning the psychological makeup serve as norms for the behavior of adult men and women and provide models for the socialization of girls and boys toward their assigned gender roles.
Another needed part of the explanation is consistent with some feminist approaches to the analysis of gender differences. According to these studies, once men are socialized to act in a dominant manner, they become comfortable with their power over women and develop norms that keep women in inferior positions. People who hold Replica Omega Watches power learn to enjoy it and are 'Tarfwilling to let go of it. When men have power, they often develop beliefs that maintain it. (e.g. "We are better at making tough decision.") Further, they develop other beliefs that make it difficult for women to gain access to power, (e.g. "They are really happier in homemaker roles. ")
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