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Types Of Anemia
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Anemia is a condition with a broad diagnosis that has a wide range of underlying causes that may need keen consideration to treat and diagnosis it in an accurate way. Some patients can show symptoms that automatically guide in anemia diagnosis, but a majority of patients are asymptomatic and can only be diagnosed after their lab results are out (Buttaro, et al., 2013). For case study one, we find an 82 –year-old woman with the diagnosis of Iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The physical exam and the patient’s history were crucial in providing the best data for diagnosis to the patient. Additionally finding the need to use lab reports also showed a vital aspect in diagnosing the patient. Through the patient history evaluation, it was possible to ask the patient about her gender and age which are the risk factors associated with IDA. IDA is a common and predominant condition among women especially in their older ages (Buttaro et al., 2013). IDA had the common symptoms such as irritability, fatigue, headaches, and palpitation, breath shortness and decreased tolerance to exercise (Schrier, Mentzer, & Tirnauer, 2016). The history of the patient also showed useful information for diagnosis through the complaints that the patient gave. These complaints include feeling dizziness weakness, fatigue, and dyspnea on exertion which are the indicative signs of IDA. The findings from the objective assessment also showed the diagnosis of IDA as Conjunctiva pallor (Buttaro et al., 2013).
Additionally knowing that the patient is having epigastric tenderness call for the need of further evaluation since this is a symptom that could indicate GI bleeding or ulcers. The patient experiencing the lack of passing stool through the recital vault prevents the conduction of physical exam for determining the presence of the GI bleedings. The physical exam also showed the presence of irregular heartbeat and Tachycardia which are indications of the presence of IDA. (Schrier, Mentzer, & Tirnauer, 2016) The 98 heart rate of the patient that is irregular can however, be attributed to the previous history of this patient of arterial fibrillation.
Furthermore, the patient history assessment also gave the information that the patient is currently under the warfarin medication attributed to her earlier diagnosis with atrial fibrillation. Blood loss is a significant contributing factor of IDA. Chronic blood loss can be experienced during gastrointestinal menorrhagia or blood loss (Buttaro et al., 2013). Another risk factor is the use if Warfarin medication as a potential cause of IDA because it increases the bleeding risk in this patient (Bross, Soch, Smith-Knuppel, 2010). Warfarin has been known to increase the bleeding risks especially for patients with hypertension and above the age of 65. The drug is also associated with ulcers and bleeding of the GI (Drugs.com, 2012). However, we are not sure about the duration that this patient has been under warfarin medication or the results of her last PT/INR results. The case study does not also show the lab results that can help in diagnosis.
IDA is a common type of anemia classified as microcytic-hypochromic. It involves the presence of abnormally small erythrocytes with low hemoglobin levels (Huether and McCance, 2012). The born marrow manufactures the Red blood cells (RBC) that circulate throughout the body for one month and are responsible for transporting oxygen to body tissues. Iron determines the way the body functions and the vital component for hemoglobin productions. Low levels of iron decrease the ability and function of the blood in transporting oxygen (National Institute of Health, 2015). The common causes for IDA are blood loss and dietary deficiency. A 2-4 ml/day blood loss is equivalent to 1-2 mg or iron causes the depletion of the stored iron and causes IDA. Other causes of IDA are heavy menses, inadequate diet, increase requirements and malabsorption. Others are variances peptic ulcers, diverticulitis and malignant disease. Treatment goals should aim at correcting and determining the causes of IDA. For the case of this patient, she will need a lab test to assess iron studies, CBC as well as PT/INR (Buttaro et al., 2013). The results will show the severity of anemia that decisions of iron replacement therapy or blood transfusions can be made. The specialists in GI will also help to shows the epigastric tenderness, age, symptoms the current warfarin effect and failure to test stool can be done to find the best treatment.
Buttaro, T. M., Trybulski, J., Polgar Bailey, P., & Sandberg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Bross, M, Soch, K, Smith-Knuppel, T (2010). Anemia in older persons. Am Fam Physician.82(5):480-487.
Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/
Huether, S, & McCance, K(2012).Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
National Institute of Health. (2015). Iron deficiency anemia.
Schrier, S, Mentzer, W. & Tirnauer, S. (2016). Causes and diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in the adult.
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