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Chilli is one of the most valuable crops followed by the good vegetable farming business in India. Chilli is used as a principal ingredient of different curries, and chutneys. It is also said to be chilli pepper and which is the spicy item used for cooking preparations. Chillies are used in vegetables, spices, sauces, pickles, and dry chillies are used for curry powder. In India Andhra Pradesh is leading state in chilli production followed by Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal. Chillies can be grown in open fields, greenhouse, and poly houses under shade nets, pots, and backyards. If they are grown continuously in greenhouses under controlled environment the quality, and production will be high.
Andhra Pradesh: Guntur, Prakasam, Krishna, Rajahmundry, and Nellore.
Telangana: Warangal, Khammam, Hyderabad, and Nizamabad.
Maharashtra: Nagpur, Nasik, Ahmednagar, Sholapur, Aurangabad, and Amaravati.
Punjab: Amritsar, Nabha, and Patiala
Tamil Nadu: Ramanathapuram, Kanayakumari, Madurai, Villupuram, Coimbatore, and Cuddalore districts.
West Bengal: Coochbehar, Jalpaiguri, East and West Midnapore districts.
Karnataka: Mysore, Bangalore, Bellary, Hubli, Gadag, and Byadgi.
Climate for Chilli Farming
Chili plant can be seen in the tropical and sub-tropical region. It grows well in warm and humid climate and temperature of 20⁰-25⁰C. During blossom development period, bud doesnt develop due to low moisture conditions of the soil.
Season for Chilli Farming
Chillies are known as Kharif and Rabi crop, and sowing is done in May to June for Kharif crop, September to October for Rabi crops and if they planted as summer crops sowing is done in January to February months.
Soil for Chilli Farming
Black soils retain moisture for long periods which are suitable for the rainfed crop. In Uttarakhand, the soil is mixed with grit and rough sand before undertaking chilli farming.
Land Preparation for Chilli Farming
Chilli can be grown in all types of sandy loam soils. But stones and pebbles should be removed. Three to four times of ploughing is undertaken, and sowing is required. Acidic soils are not suitable for Chilli Farming.
A neutral soil pH ranges from 6.5-7.5, and it is well-suited for chilli farming.
Varieties in Chilli Farming
Chillies are produced from seeds. At the time of farming, good quality of seeds must be chosen. Some of the chillies are used for commercial cultivations are:
High bitter diversity with short fruits.
The fruits have a light red color.
Grown in parts of Gujarat.
Fruits are fleshy and have deep red color.
Harvested from November to February months.
Grown in North Indian state like Jammu-Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
Color is ivory-white.
Grown in Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu.
Grown as a farmstead crop and available throughout the year.
Preparation of Chilli Farming
The land for farming of chillies are ploughed 2-3 times and brought to fine tilth (farmland). Before ploughing, unwanted materials such as gravel, and stones are removed from the soil.
Soil Treatment for Organic Farming
If chillies are planted in an organic farm, then the soil is treated with Azotobacter or Azospirillum. Then 1 kg of Azotobacter or Azospirillum is mixed with 50 kg of manure. Soil Treatment for Conventional Farming
In conventional farming, soil sterilization is carried out using 20 mL of formalin, and mixed with water before applying. After applying, it is covered with polyethylene sheet of 25-micron thickness for 1-2 days.
Preparation of Chilli Plant
The chilli seeds are pre-treated with herbal fungicides. 80 grams of seeds required for sowing in 1 acre of land and treated with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Pseudomonas fluorescens are bio-fungicide which protects the disease from fungal attacks and pests.
Sowing in Plantations
Chilli seeds are grown in plantations. After sowing, the seeds are covered with coco peat and watered daily until it develops.
Disease Management in Chillies Farming
Chillies suffer from diseases like fruit rot, bacterial wilt, and leaf spot. The best way to check the development. Use resistant strains for sowing and conduct a regular inspection.
According to the climatic conditions, soil, and growth conditions chilli yields vary from 20-40 quintal per acre. 25-35kg of dried chilli obtained out of total 100kg of chilli.
Health Benefits of Chillies
Chillies are good source of iron and B-complex group.
Chillies protect against cancer.
Chillies are good for health.
Chillies help in reducing risk of lung cancer.
Chillies are good for skin health due to Vitamin E" presence.
Chilli Farming can gain good profits if farmers will follow proper chilli farming techniques.
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