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Industrial Safety Online Course
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Safety Communication in Construction Projects
Communication of the human skills is the best way for effective and successful implementation of the safety program. Aim and meaning of the safety program are very difficult to understand for employees working in different industries. However, the risk communication design can help people work safely and bring the benefit to the workplace. According to the study from Ferguson et al. (2003), the risk communication has 3 elements in order to make it effective:
1) Usability - how easy is the material to read, remember and comprehend
2) Usefulness - the material relevant to the target audience and
3) Message framing effects - what is the influence of presenting the same risk information as positives or negatives
According to Herrero et al. (2002), one of the problems in safety management is the relationship between top management and workers. The lack of communication from top management to the workers could be damaged the safety management. Cullen (1990) also recognized that the break in the communications sequence between different of individuals and groups on the platform itself and the management structure is major factors contribute to the increase of the disaster.
Although many construction projects in Thailand should be intensive on safety regulation, the construction workers do not care about the safety because they are a temporary employee. This can be the deficiency of the regulation and the actual that communication can solve and share the knowledge in safety together for improving the safety procedure. Finally, all the involved parties have to keep in mind that safety is the first priority for working in the dangerous workplace like a construction project.
Mr. Somjate Chatutewaprasit made a research which the main objective is to investigate the effective communication methods in managing construction safety and health. His sub-objectives were also explored as follows: (1) to conduct an exploratory study to identify communication methods in managing safety and health; and (2) to study problems in implementing the communication methods.
This study was concentrated on medium to large scale construction projects and focused on safety communication methods and the effectiveness of each safety communication methods.
For the main objective which is to investigate the effective safety communication methods in managing construction safety and health by using the correlation between frequency (action) with the level of safety awareness and level of understanding (output), to explain which safety communication are suitable with each situation are concluded as follow:
- Correlation analysis between Frequency of Safety communication methods and Level of Safety Awareness showed that safety communication methods do not have any correlation with each other. The meaning of this case is that if safety supervisors increase the frequency of safety communication methods, the level of safety awareness in construction site would not increase following the frequency.
From this situation, the frequencies of safety communication methods are not related to safety awareness. Because of in construction site have many temporary workers so when temporary workers go out to work in the agriculture field. Therefore construction should recruit the new workers who not have experience of construction work. The safety communication methods are maintained by safety supervisor, but the level of awareness drop in a few months.
- Correlation analysis between Frequency of Safety communication methods and Level of New and Complex Safety Issue meant that correlation between safety communication methods with the level of understanding of new and complex safety issue.
In this case, the frequency of safety manual and procedure related to the level of understanding of new and complex safety issue. Because of when a project uses new equipment or complex work methods, safety supervisor should put the work process in safety manual and distribute safety manual handbook to all workers. The process of work use cartoon to communicate to workers it easier than letters.
- Correlation analysis between Frequency of Safety communication methods and Level of Understanding of Safety Issue for Own Team and Subcontractor Team showed that there are correlations between levels of understanding of safety issue for own contractor team and safety issue for subcontractor team with safety newsletter and safety bulletin.
For correlation between frequency of safety communication methods and level of understanding of safety issue for own contractor, the team is related together. Safety newsletter and safety bulletin can communicate safety information such as report accident record, next activities, and safety work process (from weekly work planning). Safety supervisor has to walk around and investigate workers and take pictures, after that put in safety bulletin to compare correct and incorrect work process to contractor team.
For correlation between frequency of safety communication methods and level of understanding of safety issue for own contractor, the team is related together. Safety newsletter and safety bulletin can communicate safety information such as report accident record, next activities, and safety work process (from weekly work planning). Safety supervisor has to walk around and investigate workers and take pictures, after that put in safety bulletin to compare correct and incorrect work process to subcontractor team.
Perception of the respondent of Effectiveness of Safety Communication Methods
Follow the result of this research, safety training is the best safety communication methods that safety supervisors using to communicate to all workers. The results showed that all of the safety supervisors that the researcher collected data from the questionnaire, they are the same perception that safety training is the best way to communicate with their workers. Because of safety training can transform all of the safety information such as safety work process, checking how to check equipment before use. And then safety supervisors can investigate the workers work safety follow safety supervisor instruction, and safety supervisor can advise them in front of construction work area.
The main safety communication problems that related to subcontractor foremen and workers are lack of workers experience and lack of participation with safety supervisor. In case of lack of experience it tough to teach the workers who never work in the construction site to work safely and use PPE. However safety supervisor should participation with workers and advise them repeatable, then workers will improve themselves
His thesis abstract is copied and posted.
Due to the most important in order to get success and effectiveness in safety program is communication of the human skills. However, most accidents come from the lack of communication. The lack of communication from top management to the workers could be damaged the safety management. Therefore, it is necessary to have the study on an effective safety communication in a construction project. The objectives of the study is 1) to conduct an exploratory study to identify communication methods in managing safety and health, and 2) to study problems in implementing the communication methods.
The common ways of safety communication method are Safety training, Project meeting, Toolbox meeting, Safety Orientation, Safety feedback, Safety incentive, Safety manual and procedure, Safety Poster, Safety Sign, Safety newsletter, Safety bulletin, MSDS, Safety suggestion box, and Morning talk. The problems in implementing the communication methods are Literacy, Time for explaining, Lack of workers experience, Challenge behavior of workers, Lack of participation with safety supervisor, Attitude of workers with a safety program, Site environment, and Length of communication.
Data were collected by using face-to-face interviews. The analysis was based on the statistic techniques and interpreted in meaningful ways and presented in this study. Finally, the effective safety communication methods in managing construction safety and health were concluded. Accordingly, the results of this study can be used for safety management in order to provide and improve the effective safety communication methods. Safety communication problems are related to safety communication in a construction site.
Productivity, types of productivity, productivity index, total productivity
What is productivity?
Productivity is the ratio of output to some or all of the resources used to produce the output.
Types of productivity
We can mention the following types of partial productivities:
Labor productivity: units produced / hours worked
Capital productivity: output/capital input
Material productivity: output /material input
What is the productivity index?
We can calculate a type of partial productivity as labor productivity as output per man hours for a complete year. These figures obtained from year to year can be indexed and can be related to a base year so that output per man our comparisons can be made.
Definition of total productivity
It is the ratio of tangible output and tangible input.
Differences among partial productivity, total factor productivity, and total productivity.
Men, materials, machines, methods, money, energy, etc. are inputs.
Partial productivity: output / one class of input
Total factor productivity: net output / (labor + capital)
Total productivity: the sum of all tangible outputs/sum of all tangible inputs.
Material usually flows through a facility, stopping briefly at stations where additional work is done on it to bring it closer to a finished product. These workstations, or workplaces, must be designed to permit performance of the required operations, to contain all the tooling and equipment needed to fit the capabilities and limitations of the people working at them, to be safe and to interface smoothly with neighboring workplaces.
Human engineering and ergonomic factors must be considered so that all work, tools, and machine activation devices are not only within the comfortable reach of the operator but are designed for safe and efficient operation. A workplace chart which analyzes the required actions of both hands is an aid in workplace design.
Methods engineering and Process analysis
Methods engineering definition
Methods engineering is concerned with the selection, development, and documentation of the methods by which work is to be done. It includes the analysis of input and output conditions, assisting in the choice of the processes to be used, operations and workflow analyses, workplace design, assisting in tool and equipment selection and specifications, ergonomic and human factors considerations, workplace layout, motion analysis and standardization, and the establishment of work time standards.
A primary concern of methods engineering is the integration of humans and equipment in the work processes and facilities.
What’s Process analysis?
Process analysis is that step in the conversion of raw materials to a finished product at which decisions are made regarding what methods, machines, tools, inspections, and routings are best. In many cases, the product’s specifications can be altered slightly, without diminishing its function or quality level, so as to allow processing by a preferred method. For this reason, it is desirable to have the product’s designer and the process engineer work together before specifications are finalized.
What’s methods design?
Methods design is the analysis of the various ways a task can be done so as to establish the one best way. It includes motion analysis (the study of the actions the operator can use and the advantages and/or disadvantages of each variation) and standardization of procedure (the selection and recording of the selected and authorized work methods).
While ‘‘time and motion study’’ is the more commonly used term, it is more correct to use ‘‘motion and time study,’’ as the motion study to establish the standard procedure must be done prior to the establishment of a standard time to perform that work.
Motion study definition
Motion study can be defined as “the analysis of the manual and the eye movements occurring in an operation or work cycle for the purpose of eliminating wasted movements and establishing a better sequence and coordination of movements.”
Time study definition
Time study can be defined as “the procedure by which the actual elapsed time for performing an operation or subdivisions or elements thereof is determined by the use of a suitable timing device and recorded. The procedure usually but not always includes the adjustment of the actual time as the result of performance rating to derive the time which should be required to perform the task by a workman working at a standard pace and following a standard method under standard conditions.”
Attempts have been made to separate the two functions and to assign each to a specialist. Although motion study deals with method and time study deal with time, the two are nearly inseparable in practical application work. The method determines the time required, and the time determines which of two or more methods the best is. It has, therefore, been found best to have both functions handled by the same individual.
Activities of industrial engineering
Most important activities of industrial engineering are:
Development of time standards, costing and performance standards.
Selection of processes and assembling methods.
Selection and design of tools and equipment.
Design of facilities including plant location, layout of building, machines and equipment, material handling system raw materials and finished goods storage facilities.
Design and improvement of planning and control systems for production, inventory, quality and plant maintenance and distribution systems.
Cost control systems.
Development and installation of job evaluation systems.
Installation of wage incentive schemes.
Design and installation of value engineering and analysis system.
Mathematical and statistical analysis.
Organization and methods.
Supplier selection and evaluation.
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